Pronunciation and Phonology in the EFL Classroom - Manner of Articulation Pt. 2

 

Now let's take a look at our fricatives. As the name indicates, especially in the beginning there we have a friction going on in the vocal tract and that's basically what we're dealing with mostly. There are a number of fricative sounds and they're made by placing two vocal organs together and making them vibrate to a point, which is audible. We have nine of these sounds and then move from the front to the back of the vocal tract. Let's take a look here in the front of the mouth we have two sounds, which involve our lips. Those two sounds are ?f? and ?v?. The only difference between those two sounds is that one is voiced and the other is not. Regardless we do involve our lips and they are the furthest front of the vocal tract with our fricatives. Again those sounds are ?f? and ?v?. Moving just a bit further back we're involving our tongue and our teeth. Those are the TH sounds and we're putting our tongue in between our teeth and those two bits of the vocal tract are vibrating together. They're the voiced and unvoiced TH sounds and those are ?th? and ?th?. You can even feel the friction as it goes on. Again those are ?th? and ?th? sounds. Now moving a bit further back in the mouth we have our friction, which comes from the middle of our mouth. Those sounds we have four of them are ?s? and ?z?. Those two sounds are made in the same manner and in the same place and here we have an instance where again one is voiced and the other is not. First the unvoiced ?s? and the voiced ?z?. Our second set of sounds within this part of our vocal tract are ?sh? and ?j?. Again, very similar sounds same place, same manner of articulation, the only difference is that one is voiced, while the other is not. Let's look at the unvoiced and the voiced. Then, we have our sound that is into the back and that is in the glottis it's the H or the ?h? sound. That aspiration becomes a lot more audible when we have what are called the glottal languages being German to a certain extent Dutch and certainly our Arabic languages.


Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

While there is not a rule book for managing a class, there are different aspects of class management that a teacher can play with to change classroom dynamics favorably. These of course depend on age, class size, resources, and culture. For instance, different class arrangements, such as grouping student desks into a table or using a horseshoe for a more informal setting, will require a certain amount of space. As a teacher, I have found three of the most effective tools of discipline to be maintaining calm and never yelling except in the most desperate case, building rapport, and using humor to redirect when possible. I'm a naturally relaxed person who avoids shouting in general. In South Korea, teachers frequently yell at students and publicly shame them to maintain discipline. While this actually does work for some teachers for deeply-rooted cultural reasons, I prefer my method because learning a language can already be stressful for some students, and I find that yelling only makes me stressed and scares the kids. Even worse, a few students may even find it funny, which undermines the teacher's authority. As a rule, I never yell. There is not a hard and fast rule to building rapport, although obviously eye-contact and ice breakers can go a long way. I have found that strong relationships with students tend to take a few months to build. In some cases, a particular student may latch on to a teacher quicker. After a while, the student will be comfortable asking questions instead of disengaging or making a behavior problem. They will understand when it is okay to joke, laugh, call out a response, volunteer, help each other, or step back. Finally, using humor helps improve the efficacy of the lesson overall. Humor in disciplining is usually most accessible after a long time, when the teacher already has rapport with students and can personalize the humor. It can't be used in every situation because, of course, occasionally children will engage in a behavior that is not funny at all, like fighting or screaming. But generally, it is better to engage with a student in a way that deescalates rather than taking misbehavior as some kind of personal attack. Generally children misbehave because they have short attention spans or do not get enough attention from their parents at home.


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