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Unit 18 Modals, phrasal verbs and passive voice Overview of modals Modal verbs, semi-modal verbs (also called marginal modals) and other modal expressions are listed in alphabetical order in the table belo.
Form Meaning/Function Present/Future Past be able to general ability I am not able to help you at the momen.
I will probably be able to get there by nin.
I was able to swim when I was
5. \"manage to\" Although the current was strong, I was able to swim to the other ban.
be allowed to general permission Are we allowed to smoke in this restaurant? Will journalists be allowed to ask questions? permission + action performed Although I was underage, I was allowed to enter the rac.
be bound to probability, certainty Kevin is stuck in a traffic jam, so he is bound to be lat.
be due to arrangements The film is due to start at 8 p.
Negotiations were due to take place later that wee.
be going to prediction My sister is going to have a bab.
The sky was dark; it was going to rai.
intention Do you think Sam's going to apply for the job? I was going to call you, but my battery die.
be likely to probability Smokers are more likely to develop lung cancer compared to non-smoker.
He knew that he was likely to be promote.
be likely that probability It is likely that he will win the rac.
It was likely that Mrs Hancock would become presiden.
be to arrangements + action performed Mr Jones was to speak at the meetin.
arrangements + action not performed Mr Jones was to have spoken at the meeting, but he had to cancel because of his illnes.
obligation What am I to do? official arrangements The Prime Minister is to visit India next mont.
official orders At the end of the course, all students are to take a written exa.
prohibition You are not to do that again! can ability Tom can play the pian.
If you ask him, he can probably help yo.
criticism You can be really annoying, you know! offers Can I help you? permission You can borrow my car if you wan.
Can I use your phone? Students can choose any topic for their projec.
possibility Winters in Minnesota can be really col.
requests Can you lend me $10? Can I borrow your car? can't ability We can't enter this street because it's blocke.
deduction It's only 10 o'cloc.
He can't be at hom.
It can't have been Carla you saw this mornin.
She is away on holida.
prohibition I'm sorry, but you can't stay her.
We can't eat in the librar.
could ability I could see him through the windo.
criticism George could really help you! George could really have helped you! uncertainty We haven't heard from him for 10 year.
He could have die.
possibility You could be righ.
I could have caught the bus if I had hurrie.
requests Could you tell me where the train station is? general permission When I was a child, I could do basically anything that I wanted to d.
asking for permission Could I have a glass of water? offers I could give you a lif.
suggestions You could talk to your parents and ask the.
couldn't possibility The food is delicious and the staff couldn't be more polit.
It was a great year, and I couldn't have been happie.
deduction It's only 10 o'cloc.
He couldn't be at hom.
It couldn't have been Carla you saw this mornin.
She is away on holida.
ability She couldn't speak German the.
I couldn't walk any furthe.
dare \"have the courage to do something\" How dare she criticise us? I daren't think how many victims there ar.
dare (to) Do you dare (to) tell him what happened to his bike? Don't you dare interrupt me! Who dares (to) argue with me? He didn't dare (to) look bac.
had better advice We'd better leave soo.
have to necessity, obligation I have to get to work by 9 every da.
You don't have to answer that questio.
Do you have to wear a uniform at your school? We had to start all over agai.
I didn't have to wait lon.
What did you have to do that for? have got to necessity, obligation I've got to be home soo.
You haven't got to go already, have you? Has he got to pay in advance? may possibility, uncertainty You should ask hi.
He may know Susan's telephone numbe.
I may have told you this befor.
permission Children may use the pool with adult supervisio.
May I start my presentation? offers May I carry your suitcase, Madam? may not prohibition Non-committee members may not vote on committee issue.
possibility, uncertainty You should introduce yourself; he may not remember yo.
I had better call Ann.
She may not have read my e-mai.
might suggestions You might consider taking up meditatio.
I thought you might want to read thi.
You might just as well order it on the interne.
permission Might I ask you a question? criticism You might be more polit.
You might have told me you weren't coming! possibility, uncertainty I might see you late.
I should call Ann.
She might not have read my e-mai.
must deduction That child is really talente.
His parents must be proud of hi.
That dress looks expensiv.
It must have cost a fortun.
obligation I really must give up smokin.
You must keep this secre.
mustn't prohibition You mustn't touch that Ming vas.
need necessity, obligation You needn't worry about tha.
You need only just as.
Need you make so much noise? We needn't have bought any mil.
We still have plenty at hom.
need to necessity, obligation Do you have a minute? I need to talk to you about somethin.
I don't need to be told that I should lose weigh.
Do you need to use the hairdryer? If you want good results, you will need to work harde.
I needed to have my hair cu.
Why did they need to change the lock? We didn't need to buy any mil.
We had plenty at hom.
ought to advice You ought to thank he.
obligation We ought to protect the environmen.
You ought to have told me earlie.
Why didn't you tell me? assumption Anne ought to be at home by no.
shall formal rules and regulations, commands Visitors shall be accompanied at all times by a security guar.
You shall not kil.
offers Shall I copy this document for you? suggestions Shall we throw a party sometime next week? should advice You should smoke les.
surprise I'm sorry that he should feel that wa.
It's surprising that she should have said tha.
criticism You shouldn't be sitting here just doing nothing! I should have booked a table in advanc.
obligation I think you should leav.
You should have consulted a docto.
assumption I should get back before
9. I have never tried setting up a website, but it shouldn't be too difficul.
The plane should have landed by no.
suggestions Shouldn't we have a pizza instead? used to past habits and states On Sundays, my parents used to take me to dance schoo.
I didn't use to like dancing in those day.
will willingness I will take you to the airpor.
I have nothing to do tomorro.
If you will wait for a moment, I'll see if Mr Hawking is availabl.
requests Will you turn off your mobile phone, please? assumption \"The phone's ringin.
\" \"That'll be for m.

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