Overview of All English Tenses - Present Tenses - Present Perfect - Overview


Now we'll have a look at the present perfect tense. The form for the present perfect tense is again our subject here, our auxiliary verb, or helping verb, in this case it's 'have'. For subjects 'I,' 'you,' 'we,' 'they', we leave the auxiliary verb as 'have'. For 'he,' 'she' and 'it', our auxiliary verb needs to be conjugated or changed into 'has'. Following these helping verbs, we have our main verb in the past participle form. Here we have the verb 'to play'. 'To play' is a regular verb. So for regular verbs we simply add '-ed'. The result is sentences such as 'I have played football today,' or 'He has played snooker today'.

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

Productive skills are similarly important to learn a language as receptive skills. speaking and writing are equally significant and mostly used for communication purpose. However, fluency is highly determined and focus on speaking. Whereas, accuracy is the vital examined point in writing while students are learning the lesson of English language. Accuracy and fluency activities are usually a part of the study and activate phase respectively. Speaking activities are technically concerned to check students' ability of fluency of language rather than be strict with the grammatical mistakes. However, accuracy is importance as much as fluency in language. Speaking activities can be done in a controlled based, guided based and fluency based. Controlled activities include drilling most of the time. Guided activities are less controlled but little more creative. Fluency based activities are all concerned to students' creative content rather than following teacher. Free role play, debates, simulations are some of the examples of it. It is very important to create a comfortable and encouraging atmosphere in the classroom, so the students don't feel fear or lack of interest and confidence to participate in speaking. Work in a group, sufficient practice before fluency activities, make activities interesting activities topic, and careful planning may help teachers to persuade students to speak. It is very helpful for teachers to follow the guidelines before, during and after the lesson as given in this unit. Written texts are different than speaking in the context of contracted forms, formal forms, spelling and pronunciation. It is very important to let students practice enough before free activities. So, they can be enable to work out with the correct form of good handwriting, spelling, layout and punctuation. A good handwriting may depend upon personal style but it is very important to persuade students for clean and creative handwriting as the reader may be influenced by it. Similarly, incorrect spelling may invite trouble of understanding wrong meaning of texts. Students must be taught and practiced enough to clear the understanding of words seem similar in spelling but have different meaning and different pronunciation. Students should be given enough different styles of texts to work out, so they can be good with a variety of writing layout skills and punctuation. However, punctuation may be influenced by personal creativity but it still can make reader confuse it it goes too vague or if students try to follow their own native language of writing as it might be different than English language. Writing a poem, a story or a play can help students to use their creative thoughts and being creative but input from outsource ideas may make it more effective to learn. Activities in classroom can be a fun to achieve a goal or objective of the particular lesson whether it is a competitive or co-operative. Teacher should include these games during the lesson in a regular base.

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