The Future Tenses - Future Perfect - Structure, Usages and Teaching Ideas


Now let's have a look at the future perfect tense. The future perfect tense is used to talk about an action in the future that will be completed by a point in the future. Here, we have for our positive form our subject in general we're using the pronoun ?she' here, so ?She will have finished.' We're using the word ?will' to indicate the future. We're using our helping verb or auxiliary verb ?have' and the past participle form of the main verb, in this case here, it's ?finish', which was conjugated as ?finished': ?She will have finished.' In order to make the negative form, we simply add the word ?not' between the word ?wil'l and our helping verb ?have': ?She will not have finished,' and finally we ask our question by starting with the word ?will' then using our subject our auxiliary verb ?have' and our main verb ?finished': ?Will she have finished?' The only usage for this tense will be to speak about actions that will be completed before a future time. Here, our example sentence reads ?I will have finished this course by the end of the year.' Here, we're relating to future action finishing or ?have finished' something by another point in the future, which is here the end of the year. Now let's take a look at the teaching ideas for the future perfect tense. This tense is used to talk about actions that will have happened by another point in time in the future. Here, we could be asking questions like ?What will you have done by the age of 50?' ?What will you have accomplished by next year?' We could shorten that into simple diaries and journals. We could give students a monthly calendar for them to fill out. At the end of it, will ask questions such as ?What will you have done by the end of the month?' The students can make various comments based upon that. We can also use this for famous people. We can have our students choose a famous actor or a famous politician and simply ask ?How many films will he have made by the time he's 50?' ?How many films will she have directed by the year 2025?'

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The nature of modal auxiliary verbs are first covered in this unit, as well as active and passive voices, relative clauses, and phrasal verbs. These verbs are used before other verbs to add meaning to the main verb. When used in a sentence, they can express obligation, possibility, permission or prohibition, ability, or advice. Some of these include: might, may, should, could, would, can, will, must, have to, have got to, need to, or ought to. How they are used can also be relative to the formality of the situation, such as politely asking a stranger for directions or help. The verbs that follow a modal verb stay in their base form in future and present meanings, while they can vary in form when the sentence is expressing past ideas. Take this sentence for example: 'I should go to the library today.' The verb 'go' following the modal verb 'should' will remain in the same base form regardless of the past or future meaning implied. If the same modal verb and following verb were to be used referring to the past, the speaker would say 'I should have gone to the library today,' implying a different meaning than the present or future meanings in the first sentence. Modal auxiliary verbs can be taught using real world scenarios, where the teacher can get students thinking and talking about actions, lifestyles, diets, and other things that are more permissible, recommended or expected to create sentences using modal auxiliary verbs correctly. The difference between passive and active voices are explored as well. An active voice becomes passive when the object of an active verb becomes the object of a passive verb. In the passive voice, the tense of will be indicated by 'be', whereas in the active voice the tense is determined by the main verb (active voice: I CHOSE the car -- passive voice: the car WAS chosen by me). Defining relative clauses give necessary information about something, while a non-defining relative clause gives information, separated by commas, that are not entirely essential to who are what is being referred to. Phrasal verbs contain two or three words, and do not exactly reveal their meaning themselves. Examples include, 'woke up','believe in','turn up', 'took off', or 'came up with'. Either way they consist of one verb + two particles, and exist in three types. One type is intransitive verb, where no direct object follows the phrasal verb (I woke up at seven o'clock). Transitive separable verbs have a direct object that can also be placed in between the two words of the phrasal verb (I woke up my neighbor/I woke my neighbor up). Transitive verbs that are inseparable have a direct object, but it cannot be placed between the two words of the phrasal verb, otherwise it will not make sense (You can look after my cat//You can look my cat after).

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