The ESA Methodology of Teaching - Boomerang ESA Lesson

 

The next example is going to be that of a boomerang lesson and remember the structure is like this. So, again, we're going to start with an engage phase and for our engage, the students are just going to have a discussion about jobs. What happens at interviews and so on and so forth. So, during that engage phase, what we'd hope to do is to elicit some useful language about jobs and interviews and the types of questions that are being asked. Then, we're going to move immediately into an activate activity and this is going to involve a role-play. So, we'll break the students into pairs. One will be an interviewer, the other will be an interviewee and they'll generate the language that that role-play will produce. What the teacher can do whilst that is taking place is to go around and make a note of any mistakes in either vocabulary or grammar that are taking place. What you can then do in the study phase of the lesson, firstly in the board work, taking your cue from what happened in the role -lay, then we can study that particular language and grammar which will be helpful for their role play later on in the lesson. So, the students will cover any useful language and grammar needed for that particular role-play. Once that has occurred, we can then do worksheets. Those worksheets will be to check their understanding of that particular language and grammar point and then, finally, we can repeat the role-play as our final activate activity. Perhaps swap down the interviewer and the interviewee, so they get to play a different part. Then, what they should now be able to do is to make use of this language and grammar in their second role-play. Hopefully what we will show the students is that there is a gap in their knowledge in this first one and that they can then use that language in their second one. So, a boomerang ESA lesson is very good for indicating a learning need and showing that that learning need has been covered.


Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

Phonology is the study of the physical properties of sound. In this chapter, we discussed about intonation, stress, and pronunciation, as well as the manner and place of articulation. Intonation is the variation of pitch and volume in the sentence which also carries the message of the sentence. There are three patterns of intonation: rise/fall, fall/rise, and flat. The rise/fall intonation indicates that the speaker is done speaking and has nothing more to say. It is evident in short utterances, straightforward questions, positive and negative statements, greetings, and instructions. The speaker does not necessarily need a response. While the fall/rise intonation indicates surprise, disagreement, and especially when the speaker requires a response or acknowledgement. The flat intonation indicates that the speaker does not have a lot to say nor is interested in communicating. Techniques in teaching intonation include nonsense words, gestures, humming or singing, and the usage of the board. The stress in a sentence is the \"strong\" part of the sentence; where the stressed words bear the meaning of the sentence. We can only stress syllables, and therefore, we only stress the syllables of those words that carry the meaning of the sentence. In addition to that, a word can only have one stress. However, a secondary stress may be present in multi-syllable words. The rest of the words in the sentence are called unstressed words. Such as auxiliary verbs, articles, pronouns, and prepositions. Techniques in teaching stress include contrastive stress, gestures, choral work, stress marks, and the usage of the board. To make our speech more efficient, native English speakers tend to join words together (connected speech) by linking, sound dropping, sound changing, and adding an extra letter. The second part of the unit discusses about the phonemic alphabet and how it can aid us in the pronunciation of English words. The phonemic alphabet is a set of symbols that each represents a single sound in order to form words. The consonant sounds are divided into voiced and unvoiced , where the former creates sounds through the vibration of our vocal chords, and the latter from the absence of it. Each consonant sound has its own place (the physical location of production in our mouth) and manner of articulation. Beginning from the front of our mouth (place), we have bilabial, labio-dental, dental, alveolar, palatal-alveolar, palatal, velar, and glottal. The manner in which we produce these sounds are plosive, fricative, affricate, nasal, lateral, and approximant. Techniques in teaching pronunciation include peer dictation, using our own mouth, mouth diagrams, phonemes, and tongue twisters. I was aware of stressing words in the sentence and varying my volume and pitch in speaking. I guess it comes a bit easier for native English speakers. I just forgot about the rules (of stressing syllables) and the technicality of it all (when to use certain intonations). The phonemic symbols was nothing new to me, I've seen it countless times, but only now I've learned what each means (the 8 new consonants, vowels, and diphthongs). The articulation portion of the unit completely caught me off guard. Each of the terms for the place and manner of articulation, I've never heard of before, even when I've taught a phonics class. Maybe I've disregarded it because I had to teach to kindergartens so I choose to stick with easier ways to explain it to the kids. But as a teacher, learning these concepts, I was able to grasp the concepts better.

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