Overview of All English Tenses - Present Tenses - Present Perfect - Irregular Verbs


As mentioned earlier, to form this tense, we have to use a special form of the verb. Technically it's called the past participle form with irregular verbs. Of course these past participle forms change quite a bit from its base form of the verb. Here are a few examples 'go' moves to 'gone', 'be' moves to 'been', 'write' to 'written', 'speak' to 'spoken' and 'read'. Although very confusing for the non-native speaker, doesn't change its spelling, but does change its pronunciation, resulting in 'read' going to 'read'.

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

The focus of Unit 14 is on course books and lesson materials. The materials which teachers use in conducting a lesson can be considered to be authentic or created. Authentic materials are things a native English speaker will hear or read while created materials are materials designed by the teacher. Created materials are usually more interesting to students and are used by teachers to replace or supplement course book materials. Some advantages and disadvantages of using authentic materials are: Advantages ? Boost students? confidence as they are able to understand it. ? The materials are authentic/real which the students find more interesting. ? Allows students to be more prepared for the real world of English. ? The materials are geared towards the interest of a particular group of students. Disadvantages ? The material may not be for the language level of students. ? Can be difficult for students to understand. Sometimes the information given is informal and will confuse students who are just learning the English Language. Some advantages and disadvantages of using created materials are: Advantages ? Materials geared towards language level of students. ? It is student focused. This means it is geared towards the student?s interest. For example, the teacher can use a game which the students love in order to spark interest in the lesson topic. Disadvantages ? It can limit the exposure of students to everyday English (real/ authentic). ? Sometimes it is time-consuming to create materials. Course book materials are important for guiding a lesson. Some advantages and disadvantages of course book materials are: Advantages ? It is expected by students. ? It is less time-consuming for the teacher. ? It provides security for teachers and students. ? It provides a syllabus based on the language level of students. ? It is something a teacher can rely on when he/she runs out of ideas for the lesson. ? There is a mix of lessons covering grammar, vocabulary and skills work. ? There is continuity and progression of lessons. ? Language items in previous lessons are often used in succeeding lessons. ? It is attractive and appealing to the eye. ? It is helpful for inexperienced teachers. Disadvantages ? It does not always fit the specific needs of students. ? It can result in teachers becoming lazy. ? Students may not like the book. ? It dictates the lessons to be taught. ? It can become predictable and boring to students. ? Some course books are outdated and unattractive to students. Even though course books have its disadvantages, there are ways in which a teacher can maximize its effect. Some of these are: ? Course book should only be used as a guide for the lesson. ? Do not use the course book for the entire lesson. ? Do not think of the course book as a solution to everything. ? Use the materials contained in the book that is most beneficial to students. ? Do not base all lessons around the course book.

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