Overview of All English Tenses - Present Tenses - Present Perfect Continuous - Overview
And now we'll have a look at the present perfect continuous tense. As its name suggests, what we're going to do is combine the present continuous usages and the present perfect usages into a tense that basically expresses the fact that we've got an action continuing up until the present point in time. For the form of this tense, again, we're going to combine into various aspects of both the perfect and the continuous tenses. If we have a look we always begin with our subjects, then we have our, two now, helping verbs. The helping verb 'to have' for the perfect tenses, as well as the helping verb 'be' for the continuous tenses. For our subjects 'I', 'you', 'we' and 'they', we leave 'have' as 'have' and for 'he', 'she' and 'it', we conjugate it to 'has'. Because it's a continuous tense, of course we need to use the verb plus '-ing'. This results in sentences such as 'I have been teaching quite some time.' or 'She has been teaching for 15 years.' The negative form of the present perfect continuous remains the same as the positive form and we simply add 'not' in between our two helping verbs 'have' and 'be'. In order to make the present perfect continuous questions, again following with that pattern of inversion, what we've done is put the auxiliary verb 'have' at the beginning of the sentence followed now by the subject 'Have I been teaching for five years?' could be a sentence used there and again, we're going to conjugate our verb to 'has' for 'he', 'she', 'it', resulting in 'Has she been teaching for five years?' The usages for the continuous tense are very similar to that of the present perfect tense but here the focus is on the action and the fact that it has been continuing for some time leading up to the present. Let's have a look. We've got incomplete and ongoing activities with duration. 'I have been teaching for 10 years.' Then, we have our recently finished activities with present results. So our recently finished activity is 'chopping trees' but the present result is 'he is tired' so results in a sentence reading 'He is tired because he's been shopping trees.'
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
The last unit focuses on the common problems teachers usually face with during their teaching and suggests the ways of solving.
The first lesson is vitally important as teacher and class members establish the rapports with each other. The friendly and enjoyable atmosphere at the first lesson allows setting the right tone to the whole course. At the first lesson teacher should find out students? level of language, their interests, needs etc. All this information is an important clue to the future lessons planning. The best activities at the first lesson might be some communicative activities, questionnaire, survey etc As I?m going to teach preschoolers after completing this course, the suitable activities might be any ball game (Roll Ball/Pass Ball) when players roll or pass the ball and naming their favorite activity, food, animal etc gives some short information about themselves. Another important part of the first and future lessons is a warmer, as it sets the right mood and atmosphere in the class, especially with young learners. Any game, written or oral may be a warmer; the main point is that the warmer must be fun and short. Songs and alphabet games work perfectly with preschoolers. One of the biggest problems might be varying levels in the same class, therefore teacher?s task is to choose the write techniques for teaching, so that the stronger students don?t get board and the weaker ones disappointed. Appropriate techniques might be usage of different materials (easier and harder degree), usage of the same materials but giving different tasks according students level, pairing stronger and weaker students together or giving some extra work to quicker students.
Dealing with a large class is quite a challenge. Teacher has to find the way of involving all the students equally in a lesson. Using of worksheets, pair and group work, choral repetitions and whole class activities could help to solve this problem.
Using of native language in a classroom might be one of the problems that teacher will face with. The solution might be establishing the rule of only English speaking during the class. Encouraging and avoiding overcorrection, prompting if necessary and trying to understand if even the students still make mistakes and don?t speak perfectly will help students to stay confident and wish to use language. It?s hard to prevent young learners from using their mother tongue, so only encouragement and reminding get the kids used to using English in the classroom.
A student reluctant to speak or join activities might appear in every class. The ideas of solving this problem might be pair work, using control practice or repetitions before in front of the class activity, role plays and creating the interest around the topic or activity.
Of course, during teaching career teacher will deal with much more problems. Sometimes we should try to avoid some of the arising problems but sometimes just face some of the problems and think of the best way of solving. ,