Overview of All English Tenses - Present Tenses - Present Perfect Continuous - Comparing Cards

 

Here's an idea for teaching the present perfect continuous tense. However in this activity what the students will be doing, is comparing and contrasting this tense with the present perfect tense. This is something that a teacher will want to do after they've explored both tenses and because both tenses are quite confusing, we'll ask the students to compare and contrast the two, making sure that they can tell the difference. In this activity, the teacher will have cut out each individual card. The teacher will distribute the cards to the students and after a minute has gone by, the teacher will then ask the students to fold their cards over and get into a pair. One student in the pair will then present a certain result and ask the student to form the question. Here, with the prompts 'Why be angry'; The student will of course ask 'Why are you angry?' The other student will then flip over the rest of the card and read 'wait for you since 6 o'clock' and hopefully come up with a statement 'Because I've been waiting for you since 6 o'clock.' However, with this card we won't be using the same tense again. We'll be asking 'Why are you hungry?' and the student will have to answer 'Because I haven't eaten all day.' Hopefully by the end of the activity, the teacher will be able to recognize that the students are correctly deciding which tense the activity needs to be put into.


Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

Pronunciation is a subject that is very often left aside by teachers, mostly because they are unsure of how to introduce it to their class or because they lack the theory and the right training to teach it. Pronunciation is essential to language communication since we usually adhere emotion to what we are saying and can also say a lot about the meaning we want to convey and the response we expect from the person to whom we are talking. We do this by making changes in stress, rhythm and intonation which are all part of what is called Phonology, \"the study, science, analysis, and classification of the physical properties of sounds. The intonation we add to an oral message will be done through the variation of volume and pitch. It is an essential part when conveying a message and its meaning and is especially important when posing questions, agreeing or disagreeing, confirming statements and expressing feelings. The stress that we place on specific words in a sentence helps us give emphasis to these words and therefore express a particular meaning as we draw special importance to them. If we analyse words individually, multi-syllable words in English have one or more parts that are stressed. There is a set of rules that can be used as a guide to know what syllable should be stressed in a word, but for the most part it is recommended that students try to feel the language and add stress to it naturally instead of paying too much attention to these rules. The unit also introduces the phonemic alphabet which can be very useful for students, especially because there are more exceptions than rules of pronunciation in the English language. There are many words that are spelled in very similar manner but have a very different pronunciation, or you can have two words which are exactly the same but will be pronounced differently due to the context. One of the most important skills that a student should acquire when using the phonemic alphabet is not to focus on the spelling of words but rather focus on the sounds that are made when saying a particular word. The student must find the symbol that produces each individual sound and with the use of the phonemic alphabet put the sounds together to form the phonetic spelling. At this point of the unit the concept of articulation is introduced. This concept focuses on the formation of clear and distinct sounds in oral language. These sounds are produced in different organs called the speech organs which are the tongue, the larynx and the glottis. There are also three places where articulation is produced, but these places are not considered organs but rather areas in the mouth. They are the alveolar ridge, the hard palate and the soft palate. All the sounds that are produced in each organ or area of the mouth have common characteristics. Different sounds vary not only according to the palce where they are produced but also the manner in which they are produced. The manners of articulation are plosive, fricative, nasal, lateral, affricate and approximant.


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