Classroom Management for Teaching English as a Foreign Language - Giving Instructions

 

Our next consideration is that of giving instructions to our students. In order for those students to effectively carry out an activity, we need to make sure we have given clear and unambiguous instructions. It's also very important to check that the students understand the activity before you start. If you've done that work correctly then the teacher shouldn't need to say anything once an activity has started because the students are very clear about what they're supposed to be doing. So some ideas when giving instructions. As we've mentioned use simple language. Secondly, rather than trying to explain an activity, then do a demonstration which is visual. Thirdly, try to use wherever possible common words that come up within every activity. These would be things like ?look?, ?listen?, ?your partner?, ?think?, and so on and so forth. So instead of continually changing the way you try to describe an activity, if we use these common terms, such as look and listen, use them as often as possible they're as many activities as we can, then those instructions will become clearer to the students as time goes on. Final thing here we need to be very sure that the students have understood our instructions and we can't rely on questions, such as do you understand. Quite often they will say yes whether they do or not. So in order to check that the students understand the instructions, ask them what they're going to do. If they cannot adequately answer that question there's very little point in moving into the activity so we need to go back and explain demonstrate again.


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Modal verbs are helping/auxiliary verbs that express ideas like ability, permission, possibility, and necessity. One of the most important things to remember is that modal verbs are always combined with other verbs to show complete meanings, but combining correctly is often a challenge for English learners. This is because we have single-word modals (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would) and phrasal modals (be able to, be going to, be supposed to, had better, have to, have got to, ought to, used to). Here are some characteristics of modal verbs: ? They never change their form. You can't add \"s\", \"ed\", \"ing\"... ? They are always followed by an infinitive without \"to\" (e.i. the bare infinitive.) ? They are used to indicate modality allow speakers to express certainty, possibility, willingness, obligation, necessity, ability Modal verbs are used to express functions such as: 1. Permission 2. Ability 3. Obligation 4. Prohibition 5. Lack of necessity 6. Advice 7. possibility 8. probability Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without \"to\", also called the bare infinitive. Examples ? You must stop when the traffic lights turn red. ? You should see to the doctor. ? There are a lot of tomatoes in the fridge. You need not buy any. Teaching Ideas; One of the most popular and common activities to practise the modal verbs should (and sometimes ought to) are situations in which people ask for advice. 1. Ask students to each write about a problem they have (real or imaginary) that they would like advice on. They should write these on a slip of paper, but not write their name. Collect all the slips of paper and put the students into groups of four. Give each group four ?problems? at random. Tell them to select two and give advice to the writer about their problem (including modal verbs such as should, ought to, shouldn?t etc). When groups have finished, ask them to read out the problem and the advice. Active Voice A feature of sentences in which the subject performs the action of the verb and the direct object is the goal or the recipient: The mechanic fixed the car. Passive Voice A feature of sentences in which the object or goal of the action functions as the sentence subject and the main verb phrase includes the verb to be and the past participle: The car was fixed by the mechanic. Usage, The passive voice is used to show interest in the person or object that experiences an action rather than the person or object that performs the action. In other words, the most important thing or person becomes the subject of the sentence. Rules for changing Active Voice into Passive Voice: ? Identify the subject, the verb, and the object: SVO. ? Change the object into the subject. ? Put the suitable helping verb or auxiliary verb. ... ? Change the verb into past participle of the verb. ? Add the preposition \"by\

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