- describe places, people, animals, things, qualities and states.
- main types are - common: people, animals, places, things (lowercase/miniscules).
- proper: personal, country, character, planet names (always with an uppercase/capital letter).
- compound: the joining of two nouns to make a noun.
- abstract: ideas that are intangible yet, able to experience them.
- collective: group names of individuals, species as one single unit.
- plurals - noun plurals are usually produced by adding an 's'. In other instances when the nouns end in 'ch', 's', 'sh', 'x', they usually get an 'es'.
- countable nouns: things that can be counted.
- uncountable nouns: things that can't be counted.
- adjectives are used to describe nouns.
- adjectives are commonly used in groups of 2 or 3, separated by commas. If a noun starts the list, the last adjective is separated from the others by 'and'. However, if the noun ends the list, the 'and' disappears.
- comparatives: the comparative form of adjectives are used to compare people or things. A common pattern for basic comparisons: adjective +...er than.
- there are two different types: definite article, 'the' (used before a particular, singular or plural noun).
: indefinite articles, 'a' and 'an' (they are used strictly with singular nouns, which refer to any member of a group).
- all verbs are either transitive or intransitive.
- transitive verbs are directly followed by an object
- intransitive verbs can't be directly followed by an object, since they do not do anything to anyone or anything.
- all verbs have a base form called, infinitives, preceded by the preposition 'to'.
- verb forms: base form
- regular verbs: the past simple and past participle end in 'ed'.
- irregular verbs: the past simple and past participle change respectively.
- auxiliary verbs: they help form a tense or expression by combining with present or past participle or even infinite forms of other verbs.
- adverbs add information to the verbs describing action, quality or state.
- the 5 main types of adverbs: manner- fast, hard, well, wrong...
: place - above, below, behind, among...
: time - now, currently, recently, soon...
: degree - too, enough, very...
: frequency - once, twice, thrice, sometimes...
- adverbs are placed after the object of a transitive verb and right after of an intransitive verb.
- gerunds are the -ing forms of verbs used as nouns.
- personal pronouns: I, me, you, he, him, she, her,...
- possessive pronouns: mine, yours, hers, its, ....
- reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,...
- relative pronouns: who, which, that, whose.
PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS
- prepositions show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and other words in the sentence.
- time/date: at, on, by, before, from, since, until...
- movement: from, under, above, below, beside, beneath...
- conjunctions: they are joining words or groups in a sentence.
A very well put together and comprehensive introduction to the English grammar. Very knowledgeable and concise. Thank you so much.