How to Pronounce 'VOX POPULI' - English Pronunciation
In this episode, Linda takes on the pronunciation of the word "vox populi". Enjoy the episode!
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Modal phrases (or semi-modals) are used to express the same things as modals, but are a combination of auxiliary verbs and the preposition t.
The modals and semi-modals in English are: Can/could/be able to May/might Shall/should Must/have to Will/would Can, Could, Be Able To Can, could and be able to are used to express a variety of ideas in English: Ability/Lack of Ability Present and Future: can/can?t + base form of the verb Tom can write poetry very wel.
I can help you with that next wee.
Lisa can?t speak Frenc.
am / is / are / will be + able to + base form of the verb am not/ isn?t / aren?t/ won?t be + able to + base form of the verb Mike is able to solve complicated math equations The support team will be able to help you in about ten minute.
I won?t be able to visit you next summe.
Past: could / couldn?t + base form of the verb When I was a child I could climb tree.
was / were + able to + base form of the verb wasn?t / weren?t + able to + base form of the verb hasn?t / haven?t + been able to + base form of the verb I wasn?t able to visit her in the hospita.
He hasn?t been able to get in touch with the client ye.
Note: Can and could do not take an infinitive (to verb) and do not take the future auxiliary wil.
Incorrect: I can to help you this afternoo.
Correct: I can help you this afternoo.
Correct: I will (I?ll) be able to help you this afternoo.
Possibility / Impossibility can / can?t + base form of the verb You can catch that train at 10:43. He can?t see you right no.
He?s in surger.
could + base form of the verb I could fly via Amsterdam if I leave the day befor.
Ask Permission / Give Permission Can + Subject + base form of the verb (informal) Can you lend me ten dollars? Can + base form of the verb (informal) You can borrow my ca.
Could + subject + base form of the verb (polite) Could I have your number? Could I talk to your supervisor please? Make a suggestion ? To make a suggestion use: Could + base form of the verb (informal) You could take the tour of the castle tomorro.
May, Might Formal Permission / Formal Prohibition may / may not + base form of the verb You may start your exam no.
You may not wear sandals to wor.
Polite Request May + subject + base form of the verb May I help you? Possibility / Negative Possibility may/ might + base form of the verb We may go out dinner tonigh.
Do you want to join us? Our company might get the order if the client agrees to the pric.
may not / might not + base form of the verb Adam and Sue may not buy that hous.
It?s very expensiv.
They might not buy a house at al.
To Make a Suggestion (when there is no better alternative) may as well / might as well + base form of the verb You may as well come insid.
John will be home soo.
We might as well take Friday of.
There?s no work to be done anywa.
Polite Suggestion might + base form of the verb You might like to try the salmon fille.
It?s our special toda.
Shall, Should, Ought to To Offer of Assistance or Polite Suggestion (When you are quite sure of a positive answer) Shall + subject + base form of the verb Shall we go for a walk? Note: Shall is only used with I or w.
It is used instead of will only in formal Englis.
To Offer of Assistance or Polite Suggestion (When you are not sure of a positive answer) Should + subject + base form of the verb Should I call a doctor? A Prediction or Expectation that Something Will Happen should/shouldn?t + base form of the verb The proposal should be finished on tim.
I shouldn?t be lat.
The train usually arrives on tim.
To Give Advice should / ought to + base form of the verb You should check that document before you send it ou.
You ought to have your car serviced before the winte.
To Give Advice (about something you think wrong or unacceptable) shouldn?t + base form of the verb James shouldn?t teach him words like thos.
Must, Have to, Need to, Don?t have to, Needn?t Necessity or Requirement Present and Future: must / have to / need to + base form of the verb You must have a passport to cross the borde.
Elisabeth has to apply for her visa by March 10t.
I need to drop by his room to pick up a boo.
Past: had to / needed to + base form of the verb I had to work late last nigh.
I needed to drink a few cups of coffee in order to stay awak.
Note: have to and need to are often used in the same context, but many times, need to is used to express something that is less urgent, something in which you have a choic.
Almost 100% Certain must + base form of the verb Thomas has lived in Paris for year.
His French must be very goo.
To Persuade must / have to + base form of the verb You must try this win.
You have to visit us while you?re in tow.
Prohibited or Forbidden must not / mustn?t + base form of the verb You must not drive over the speed limi.
You mustn?t leave medicines where children can get to the.
Lack of Necessity don?t /doesn?t /didn?t + have to + base form of the verb You don?t have to park the ca.
The hotel valet will do it for yo.
Tim doesn?t have to go to school toda.
It?s a holida.
You didn?t have to shou.
Everyone could hear yo.
needn?t + base form of the verb You needn?t worry about m.
I?ll be fin.
Modals: Will / Would will / won?t + base form of the verb John will pick you up at 7:00a.
Beth won?t be happy with the results of the exa.
Polite Request or Statement Will / Would + base form of the verb Will you please take the trash out? Would you mind if I sat here? I?d (I would) like to sign up for your worksho.
Habitual Past Action Would/Wouldn?t + base form of the verb When I was a child, I would spend hours playing with my train se.
Peter wouldn?t eat broccoli when he was a ki.
He loves it no.
A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb alon.
Example : To get = to obtain I need to get a new battery for my camer.
To get together = to meet Why don?t we all get together for lunch one day? Phrasal verbs are part of a large group of verbs called ?multi-part? or \"multi-word? verb.
The preposition or adverb that follows the verb is sometimes called a particl.
Phrasal verbs and other multi-word verbs are an important part of the English languag.
However, they are mainly used in spoken English and informal text.
They should be avoided in academic writing where it is preferable to use a formal verb such as ?to postpone? rather than ?to put off.
Transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs : Some phrasal verbs are transitiv.
(A transitive verb always has an objec.
) Example : I made up an excus.
('Excuse' is the object of the ver.
) Some phrasal verbs are intransitive.
(An intransitive verb does not have an objec.
) Example : My car broke dow.
Separable or inseparable phrasal verbs : Some transitive phrasal verbs are separabl.
(The object is between the verb and the prepositio.
) Example : I looked the word up in the dictionar.
Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparabl.
(The object is placed after the prepositio.
) Example : I will look into the matter as soon as possibl.
Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both place.
Example : I picked up the boo.
I picked the book u.
However, if the object is a pronoun, it must be placed between the verb and the prepositio.
Example : I picked it u.
Use of Passive Passive voice is used when the focus is on the actio.
It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the actio.
Example: My bike was stole.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stole.
I do not know, however, who did i.
Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows: Example: A mistake was mad.
Form of Passive Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs) Example: A letter was writte.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following: the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle) the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)