How to Pronounce 'INGENUOUS' - English Pronunciation


In this episode, we cover the pronunciation of the word "ingenuous". This word refers to an innocent or unsuspecting person or situation. Synonyms of ingenuous include naive, innocent and simple. The origin of the word is from the Latin word "ingenuus" meaning native or freeborn.

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VOCABULARY * Introduction * What a student may need to know about an item * Ways to present vocabulary * Alternative ways of teaching vocabulary * Other things to consider   Introduction?With hundreds of thousands of words in the English language, teaching vocabulary can seem like a very daunting prospec.
Remember though that the average native speaker uses around only five thousand words in everyday speec.
Moreover, your students won't need to produce every word they learn, some they will just need to recogniz.
Selecting what to teach, based on frequency and usefulness to the needs of your particular students is therefore essentia.
Once you have chosen what to teach, the next important steps are to consider what students need to know about the items, and how you can teach the.
??What a student may need to know about an item * What it means?It is vital to get across the meaning of the item clearly and to ensure that your students have understood correctly with checking question.
* The form?Students need to know if it is a verb/a noun/an adjective etc to be able to use it effectivel.
* How it is pronounced?This can be particularly problematic for learners of English because there is often no clear relation between how a word is written and how it is pronounce.
It is very important to use the phonemic script in such cases so the sts have a clear written record of the pronunciatio.
Don't forget also to drill words that you think will cause pronunciation problems for your students and highlight the word stresse.
* How it is spelt?This is always difficult in English for the reason mentioned abov.
Remember to clarify the pronunciation before showing the written for.
* If it follows any unpredictable grammatical patterns?For example, man-men / information (uncountable) and if the word is followed by a particular preposition (.
depend on ) * The connotations that the item may have?Bachelor is a neutral/positive word whereas spinster conjures a more negative imag.
* The situations when the word is or is not used?Is it formal/neutral/informal? For example, spectacles/glasses/spec.
Is it used mainly in speech or in writing? To sum up is usually written whereas mind you is spoke.
Is it outdated? Wireless instead of radi.
* How the word is related to others?For example, synonyms, antonyms, lexical set.
* Collocation or the way that words occur together?You describe things 'in great detail' not 'in big detail' and to ask a question you 'raise your hand' you don't 'lift your hand.
It is important to highlight this to students to prevent mistakes in usage late.
* What the affixes (the prefixes and suffixes) may indicate about the meaning?For example, substandard sub meaning unde.
This is particularly useful at a higher leve.
  Which of these areas you choose to highlight will depend on the item you are teaching and the level of your student.
Now it's time to think about how we can get the meaning acros.
??Ways to present vocabulary ?There are lots of ways of getting across the meaning of a lexical ite.
* Illustration?This is very useful for more concrete words (dog, rain, tall) and for visual learner.
It has its limits though, not all items can be draw.
* Mime?This lends itself particularly well to action verbs and it can be fun and memorabl.
* Synonyms/Antonyms/Gradable items?Using the words a student already knows can be effective for getting meaning acros.
* Definition?Make sure that it is clear (maybe check in a learner dictionary before the lesson if you are not confident.
Remember to ask questions to check they have understood properl.
* Translation?If you know the students' L1, then it is fast and efficien.
Remember that not every word has a direct translatio.
* Context?Think of a clear context when the word is used and either describe it to the students or give them example sentences to clarify meaning furthe.
  Again which you choose will depend on the item you are presentin.
Some are more suitable for particular word.
Often a combination of techniques can be both helpful and memorable??Alternative ways of teaching vocabulary * Give your students a few items of vocabulary and tell them to find the meaning, pronunciation and write an example sentence with the word i.
They can then teach each other in group.
* Prepare worksheets and ask your students to match words to definition.
* Ask students to classify a group of words into different categorie.
For example, a list of transport words into air/sea/lan.
* Ask students to find new vocabulary from reading homework and teach the other students in the clas.
  Other things to consider * Review the vocabulary you teach through a game or activity and encourage your students to do the same at home * Encourage autonomy in your learner.
Tell them to read, watch films, listen to songs etc and note the useful words * Have a section of your board for vocabulary items that come up as you are teachin.
Use different colours for the word / the phonemics / the prepositions / the part of speech * It is a good idea to teach/learn words with associated meanings together * Encourage your students to purchase a good dictionary and use class time to highlight the benefits of one * Teach your students the grammatical names for the parts of speech and the phonemic script * Always keep a good dictionary by your side in case a student asks about a word you don't know * If you don't and have never heard of the word, tell the student you will check and get back to the.
Do get back to them Language functions refer to the purposes in which we use language to communicat.
We use language for a variety of formal and informal purposes, and specific grammatical structures and vocabulary are often used with each language functio.
Some examples of language functions include: * Compare and contrast * Persuasion * Asking questions * Expressing likes and dislikes * Cause and effect * Summarizing * Sequencing * Predicting * Agreeing/disagreeing * Greeting people/introductions When teaching about language functions, it is important that teachers explicitly teach the vocabulary and phrases associated with each language functio.
For example, when teaching the language function of compare/contrast teachers may teach the following vocabulary: both, similar, also, different, in contrast, similarly, et.
During the lesson planning and preparation stage, teachers should brainstorm the vocabulary words associated with the language function that will be taugh.
It is important that as students become familiar with the vocabulary associated with each language function that more advanced functional vocabulary is introduced to student.
English learners must be provided with ample opportunities to practice the vocabulary and grammatical structures associated with language functions in both oral and written context.
When preparing for a lesson, teachers must identify how the vocabulary or grammatical structure will be explicitly introduced to students, as well as how students will practice in a structured way under the guidance of a teache.
Functional vocabulary and grammatical structures can be differentiated for students at varying proficiency levels, with students at the lower levels of English proficiency practicing easier vocabulary and grammatical structures than students at higher levels of English proficienc.
This research investigated vocabulary, grammar and function of English which could work well as a means of conducting: 1) the application of instruction (students? physical behaviors, giving orders or tasks), 2) the science instruction (imparting theories, the concepts, facts and information) and 3) vocabulary instruction (helping the students understand vocabulary.
The research found three kinds of word used by the teachers namely: 1) High Frequency General Words, 2) Non Specialized Academic Words and 3) the Specialized Content Area Word.
The category 1) were used for social function to build interpersonal communications, direct the students? physical behaviors and give the orders or the task.
The category (2) and (3) were used in the area of academic function specifically to conduct the science instruction (explanations, descriptions, comparisons, assessments, clarifications, paraphrasing, directing instructions, and behaviors.
Four sentence patterns (declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory) were used for the application of instruction such as greetings, leave-takings, appreciating the students? works, directing the students? behaviors and the students to do the task.
In the context of science instruction, the declaratives were used for explanations, descriptions, comparisons, clarifications and paraphrasin.
Assessing the students? knowledge and doing the clarifications used interrogative sentence.
The imperative sentences were used for directing the instructions and the students? behavior.
The exclamatory sentences were used to express the teachers? excitements, admirations or anger.
The Noun-Phrase patterns with past-tense and non-past tense and its transformational forms were employe.
VIERNES, 29 DE JUNIO DE 2007 Engage-Study-Activate ESA Engage-Study and Activate are elements which are present in a language classroom to help students to learn effectivel.
This is the point in a teaching sequence where teachers try to arouse the students interest, thus involving their emotion.
Most people can remember lessons at school which were uninvolving and where they ?switched off? from what was being taught the.
Frequently, this was because they were bored, because they were not emotionally engaged with was going o.
Such lessons can be contrasted with lessons where they were amused, moved, stimulated or challenge.
It seems quite clear that those lessons involved not only more ?fun?, but also better learnin.
Study activities are those where the students are asked to focus in on language (or information) and how it is constructe.
They range from the study and practice of a single sound to an investigation of how a writer achieves a particular effect in a long tex.
Students can study in a variety of different styles: the teacher can explain grammar, they can study language evidence to discover grammar for themselves, they can work in groups studying a reading text or vocabular.
But whatever the style, study means any stage at which the construction of language is the main focu.
This element describes exercises and activities which are designed to get the students using language as freely and communicatively as they ca.
The objective for the students is not to focus on language construction and/or practice specific bits of language(grammar patterns, particular vocabulary items or functions) but for them to use all and any language which may be appropriate for a given situation or topi.

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