Ask Linda How To Pronounce Deterioration
In this episode, we cover the pronunciation of the word "deterioration". This word is used as a noun and describes the process of something becoming progressively worse. Some synonyms for deterioration include decline, collapse or drop.
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1. Define the type of the sentence (statement, questions, command)
2. What tense is used in the introductory sentence?
3. Do you have to change the person (pronoun)?
4. Do you have to backshift the tenses?
5. Do you have to change expressions of time and place?
1. Statements, Questions, Commands Mind the type of sentences when you use Reported Speec.
There is more detailed information on the following page.
? Statements ? Questions ? Commands, Requests
2. The introductory sentence If you use Reported Speech there are mostly two main difference.
The introductory sentence in Reported Speech can be in the Present or in the Pas.
If the introductory sentences is in the Simple Present, there is no backshift of tense.
Direct Speech: ? Susan: ?Mary works in an offic.
? Reported Speech: ? Introductory sentence in the Simple Present ? Susan says (that)* Mary works in an offic.
? Introductory sentence in the Simple Past ? Susan said (that)* Mary worked in an offic.
3. Change of persons/pronouns If there is a pronoun in Direct Speech, it has possibly to be changed in Reported Speech, depending on the situatio.
? Direct Speech ? Susan: ?I work in an offic.
? ? Reported Speech ? Susan said (that)* she worked in an offic.
Here I is changed to sh.
4. Backshift of tenses If there is backshift of tenses in Reported Speech, the tenses are shifted the following wa.
? Direct Speech ? Peter: ?I work in the garde.
? ? Reported Speech ? Peter said (that)* he worked in the garde.
Direct Speech Reported Speech Simple forms Simple Present Simple Past Simple Past Past Perfect Present Perfect Past Perfect will would Progressive forms am/are/is was/were was/were had been has been had been Conversion of expressions of time and place If there is an expression of time/place in the sentence, it may be changed, depending on the situatio.
? Direct Speech ? Peter: ?I worked in the garden yesterda.
? ? Reported Speech ? Peter said (that) he had worked in the garden the day befor.
Direct Speech Reported Speech this evening that evening today/this day that day these days those days now then a week ago a week before last weekend the weekend before / the previous weekend next week the following week tomorrow the next/following day here there
6. Additional information In some cases backshift of tenses is not necessary, .
when statements are still tru.
Backshift of tenses is never wron.
? John: ?My brother is at Leipzig universit.
? ? John said (that) his brother was at Leipzig universit.
or ? John said (that) his brother is at Leipzig universit.
or when you use general statement.
? Mandy: ?The sun rises in the eas.
? ? Mandy said (that) the sun rose in the eas.
or ? Mandy said (that) the sun rises in the eas.
* The word that is optional, that is the reason why we put it in bracket.
Main Clauses connected with and / but If two complete main clauses are connected with ?and? or ?but?, put ?that? after the conjunctio.
Example: He said,?I saw her but she didn?t see m.
? ? He said that he had seen her but that she hadn?t seen hi.
? If the subject is left out in the second main clause (the conjunction is followed by a verb), do not use ?that.
Example: She said,?I am a nurse and work in a hospita.
? ? He said that she was a nurse and worked in a hospita.
? Tense of the Introductory Clause The introductory clause usually is in Past Tens.
Example: He said that ? Present Tense is often used to report a conversation that is still going on, .
during a phone call or while reading a lette.
Example: ?I am fin.
? ? Tom says / writes that he is fin.
The introductory clause can also be in another tens.
In the following table you can see, for which tense of the introductory clause you have to use backshift in reported speec.
No Backshift if introductory clause is in ? Backshift if introductory clause is in ? ? Simple Present (He says ?) ? Present Perfect (He has said ?) ? Future I will (He will say ?) ? Future I going to (He is going to say ?) ? Simple Past (He said ?) ? Past Perfect (He had said ?) ? Future II ( He will have said ?) ? Conditional I (He would say ?) ? Conditional II (He would have said ?) Backshift in Reported Speech The basic rules for backshift when transforming direct speech into reported speech are: Direct Speech Reported Speech Simple Present Simple Past Present Progressive Past Progressive Simple Past Past Perfect Simple Present Perfect Past Perfect Past Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Future I (going to) was / were going to Future I (will) Conditional I Conditional I Future II Conditional II Conditional II Exceptions Backshift of Simple Present is optional if the situation is still unchanged or if you agree with the original speake.
?Canberra is the capital of Australi.
? She said that Canberra is / was the capital of Australi.
Backshift of Simple Past and Past Progressive is optional if they cannot be mistakenly taken for backshift of Present Tens.
So backshift is not necessary if there is a time expression indicating pas.
Example: ?She left Boston on Monda.
? He said that she left / had left Boston on Monda.
Simple Past and Past Progressive do not normally change in sentences with when / i.
Example: ?When I was having breakfast, the telephone suddenly ran.
? She said that when she was having breakfast, the telephone suddenly ran.
Example: ?If I had more time, I would learn Frenc.
? He said that if he had more time, he would learn Frenc.
Requests The basic rule for requests is: introductory clause + ?to? + infinite ver.
Example: ?Say hello to your mu.
? She asked me to say hello to my mu.
Advise expressions with must, should and ought are usually reported using advise / urg.
Example: ?You must read that boo.
? He advised / urged me to read that boo.
The expression let?s is usually reported using sugges.
In this case, there are various possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with shoul.
Example: ?Let?s go to the cinem.
? He suggested going to the cinem.
He suggested that we should g.
to the cinem.
Conditionals Conditionals ? An Overview .
In this unit, we will look at the conditionals in Englis.
We will see five conditionals: zero, first, second, third and mixe.
A conditional sentence is formed by a main clause (the consequence), a conjunction (if), and a conditional clause (the condition.
Jim will go to the beach if it is sunn.
There are many possible variations of the standard conditional.
You should pay attention to the functions and practice the structures of the five standard conditional.
Learners often have difficulty choosing the correct conditional for their idea (focus on function), and often make mistakes with the structur.
Although several conjunctions are possible, in each case, I will use the most common in example.
Zero Conditional Time: General Function: Habits, tendencies, rules, and scientific fact.
Structure: When + Present Simple, Present Simpl.
Example: When he is stressed, he exercise.
First Conditional Time: Future Function: Probable future, predictions, promises, threats, and offer.
Structure: If + Present Simple, will/ modal + verb Example: If Sally is hungry later, she will eat somethin.
Second Conditional Time: Hypothetical future, abstract Function: Fantasy, improbable future, hypothesis, and negotiation.
Structure: If + Past Simple, would/ modal + verb Example: If I was rich, I would travel around the worl.
Third Conditional Time: Hypothetical past Function: Regrets, comments about past situation.
Structure: If + Past Perfect, would/ modal + have + past participl.
Example: If I had not studied English, I would have studied Arabi.
Mixed Conditional Time: Past (condition) and present (consequence.
Function: Regrets, comments about past situations that have present consequence.
Structure: If + Past Perfect, would/ modal + verb Example: If I had studied Arabic at school, I could speak Arabic no.
Comparison There are similarities in structure between the different conditional.
However, you should be careful to recognise the difference.
Zero and First Conditional Both zero and first conditional use present simple in their conditional clause.
But, the zero conditional is used to speak in general about the present whereas the first conditional speaks about a specific futur.
Compare; If I am hungry, I ea.
(Generally) If I am hungry, I will ea.
(Later) First and Second Conditional These conditionals are used for futur.
However, the first is used when the speaker thinks this situation is probabl.
If it is just an idea, the second conditional is use.
Compare; If the sky is clear later, I will look at the star.
If I was an astronaut, I would look at the stars all the tim.
First: probable futur.
Second: improbable futur.
Second, Third, and Mixed Conditiona.
All of these conditionals are hypothetical: second for present to future, and the third for pas.
The mixed conditional combines the tw.
That is to say that in third, both the condition and consequence are past whereas in the mixed, the condition is past and the consequence is presen.
Compare; If Charlotte had studied German more, she would have passed her exa.
If she had studied more, she could speak German toda.
Examples If Tom is tired, he goes to bed earl.
(Zero ? tendency) If you cool water, it becomes ic.
(Zero ? Scientific fact) If I finish work on time, I can meet my friend the restauran.
(First ? probable future) If you give me that bicycle, I will pay you ?250. (First ? offer) If it snowed in summer, I would be very surprise.
(Second ? improbable future) If I found a big bag of cash, I would buy a motorcycl.
(Fantasy) If I had not gone to the cinema on Friday, I could have gone to the restaurant with my friends on Saturda.
(Third ? regret) If Gerry had worn a scarf on that cold day, he would not be sick no.
(Mixed ? hypothetical ? past condition, present consequence)