In this video, we break down the difference between the usage of "for" and "since". Both of these words are used when talking about time, which is why they often cause confusion for many English learners. However, the difference in the usage of the two words is actually qutie easy. The word "since" is used when referring to a point or exact moment in time, such as in this example: I have been living in this house since 2005. The year 2005 is a point or exact moment in time and therefore, we need to use 'since'. "For", on the other hand, is used for a period or duration of time, such as in this example: I have been living in this house for 12 years; 12 years is a duration of time, and therefore we need to use 'for'. As you can see, all you need to do is figure out whether you are reffering to a point in time or a period of time.
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MODAL AULXILIARY VERBS
Can, could, may, might, should, will, would, must, have to, have got to, need to, needn?t + ought to.
Used before other verbs to add meaning to the main verb.
Used to express:
? Permission/ prohibition
? Difference in formality
Active voice: My wife chose the wallpaper
Passive voice: The wallpaper was chosen by my wife
? The object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb.
? In the active the focus is on the agent (wife). In the passive the focus is on the subject (wallpaper).
? Used when it is not know/not important exactly who performs the action
? Only transitive verbs (verbs followed by an object) are used in the passive
? Not possible to use intransitive (verbs not followed by an object) e.g. go, fall, sleep, come
? Form: Auxiliary verb ?be? + past participle
? Active: tense is shown by main verb
? Passive: tense is shown by auxiliary verb ?be?
Clause: a group of words containing a subject + a verb
Independent clause: A complete sentence that contains a main subject + verb
Dependent clause: Not a complete sentence. Must be connected to independent clause
? A dependent clause that modifies a noun (also known as adjective clause)
? Relative clauses are generally introduced by relative pronoun: who, which, that, whose, whom etc.
Defining relative clause:
? Information given is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
? Makes clear which person or thing we?re talking about
Non-defining relative clause:
? Information given is Not essential to the meaning.
? Information can be taken out w/out changing the meaning
? Commas are critical in non-defining relative clauses
Multi-word verbs consisting of a verb + 1 or 2 particles (preposition or adverb or adverb + preposition)
Intransitive phrasal verb: Cannot be followed by a direct object
Transitive (separable) phrasal verb:
? The verb + preposition can be separated, putting the object in the middle
? We can put the object between the verb and the preposition, or we can put the object at the end.
? If we want to use a pronoun (him, her, them, us, or it) we must separate the phrasal verb
Transitive (inseparable) phrasal verb:
? The object must always come at the end of the phrasal verb because the verb + preposition must stay together.