Theories, Methods & Techniques of Teaching - Nature vs. Nurture

 

This presentation is going to focus on the theories, methods and techniques of teaching and we're going to start with a quote. This is an interesting quotation because it contains within it a philosophical argument and it's a philosophical argument in the way in which we learn. Basically, this one is saying that the intelligence of their own children comes about due to a natural process. So this one could be said to be due to nature. This is exactly the opposite of this one, which is saying that they're teaching the environment that we create, creates that intelligence. So this one can be said to be due to nurture and this argument 'nature versus nurture' has been going on for thousands of years. These two viewpoints are two ends of a scale, or a continuum if you like, and every teaching methodology that's ever been created has its starting point somewhere on this scale. For example, if a particular methodology has its starting point here, then that would be fifty percent due to nature and fifty percent is due to nurture.


Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

This unit was about modals auxiliary verbs, passive voice, relative clauses, and phrasal verbs. Modals are used to express various different ideas and degrees of certainty. Common modals are: will, would, should, shall, might, may, must, can, could. Ought to, be able to, have to, should be included as well. The main usages are ability, advice, deduction, obligation, offer, permission/prohibition, possibility/probability, prediction, promise, and request. It is very useful to refer the chart (page 3 and 4)of auxiliary, uses, present/future, and past for proper usages. It is important to note that the use of modal verbs can change the formality and meaning of the main verb. The modals can determine degrees (strong/weak or most/least) of politeness, certainty, concerns, opinions, suggestions, etc. There are two voices used in English, One is active and the other one is passive. In the active voice, the focus is on the agent(or doer/performer of the action). In the passive voice, the agent (or performer/doer of the action) is no need to be mentioned or the doer is unknown, or when we do not want to say who is the doer. Transitive verbs (verbs followed by an object) are used in the passive. Matching games are fun to play while students can understand the tenses and their passive formation. Once the students are more familiar with the passive formation, they can do worksheets, however, some errors are anticipated. Relative clauses were also discussed in this unit. A relative clauses, also referred as an adjective clause, is a dependent clauses that modifies a noun. A relative clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun; who, which, that, whose, whom. Sometimes 'that' is omitted. There are defining and non-defining clauses. The information given in a defining clause is important to the meaning. A defining relative clause makes clear which person or thing we are talking about. Whereas the information given in a non-defining relative clause is not important to the meaning in the sentence and we can even take it out without substantially changing the meaning of the sentence. Comma is critical in non-defining relative clauses. Phrasal verbs consist of a verb plus a particle and/or a preposition. It has entirely different meaning of the verb used in a phrasal verb in a sentence. There are three types of phrasal verbs: intransitive, transitive separable, and transitive inseparable. Intransitive phrasal verbs cannot be followed by a direct object. In transitive separable, an object noun can come either between the verb and the particle or after the particle. An object pronoun can only come between the verb and the particle. It maintains the same meaning when the phrasal verb is separated by object. In transitive inseparable, the object phrase or pronoun both come after the particle. The meaning will change if a object/pronoun comes between the verb and the particle. There are so many phrasal verbs in use in everyday life. Because I am not a native speaker, I myself leaned those phrasal verbs over time. I can encourage students to be courageous to use phrasal verbs as more we use more it comes naturally.

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