Conditionals and Reported Speech - Tense Changes in Reported Speech


This video covers all the tense changes that are required in reported speech. This video is specifically aimed at teaching reported speech in an ESL setting.

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

This unit broke down ESA functions into vocabulary, grammar and language functions. There are 4 things students need to do with new language: be exposed to it, understand its meaning, understand how its constructed and be able to practice and produce it. Grammar is often said to be the tree trunk and branches of a language while vocabulary and functions are the leaves that add beauty and variety. Students must be introduced to a new language in a balanced and manageable way. Lessons that are specifically targeted to grammar or vocabulary commonly use the ?straight arrow?. An effective teacher will think about which structure is most appropriate for situation at hand.Teaching Vocabulary is very important to the students, especially in early stages. Receptive vocabulary(words the student knows but does not use) - this is much larger than his or her productive vocabulary(words the student knows and uses) Students can usually understand more words than they can actively use. How easy or difficult a vocabulary item is largely dependent on a number of factors: Similarity to students? own language. Similarity to English words already known, Spelling and pronunciation, appropriancy. One of the biggest problems of vocabulary is teaching how to select which words to teach. Teaching language functions as well as vocabulary and grammar, language also consists of functions. Language functions include areas such as inviting, refusing, agreeing and disagreeing, suggesting. Typical Function ESA boomerang type lesson could be: Engage - students talk in open class about favorite leisure activities, why they like them, how often they do them. teacher uses prompts to get students opinions on certain other activities. Activate - students walk around class inviting peers to join them in favorite activities until they have found at least 2 students who would like to do so. Study - listen to invitation dialogue on tape. Compare to the language they used and analyze ways of inviting formally/informally and accepting/rejecting such invitations appropriately. Activate - using new language students role-play in pairs.

Check out ITTT's Blog Posts

Apply for your TEFL/TESOL Course!
  • 1 The application process is free and does not commit you in any way.
  • 2 Anyone fluent in English and aged 18+ is eligible for our courses.
  • 3 No previous experience or qualifications are required.
  • 4 Apply today and receive a free e-guide covering the basics of TEFL/TESOL
  • 5 Sign up for your course before 26 October, 2019 and receive an additional course free of charge. *
* Applies to in-class courses, combined courses, diploma courses and 120-hour online course with tutor and videos
Personal data
Course Details
Additional Info

Where would you like to teach? (optional)

The personal information we collect on this page will be treated in accordance with our privacy policy.
By submitting this form you declare to have read and agreed to the Terms & Conditions.