Conditionals and Reported Speech - Tense Changes in Reported Speech


This video covers all the tense changes that are required in reported speech. This video is specifically aimed at teaching reported speech in an ESL setting.

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

This unit broke down ESA functions into vocabulary, grammar and language functions. There are 4 things students need to do with new language: be exposed to it, understand its meaning, understand how its constructed and be able to practice and produce it. Grammar is often said to be the tree trunk and branches of a language while vocabulary and functions are the leaves that add beauty and variety. Students must be introduced to a new language in a balanced and manageable way. Lessons that are specifically targeted to grammar or vocabulary commonly use the ?straight arrow?. An effective teacher will think about which structure is most appropriate for situation at hand.Teaching Vocabulary is very important to the students, especially in early stages. Receptive vocabulary(words the student knows but does not use) - this is much larger than his or her productive vocabulary(words the student knows and uses) Students can usually understand more words than they can actively use. How easy or difficult a vocabulary item is largely dependent on a number of factors: Similarity to students? own language. Similarity to English words already known, Spelling and pronunciation, appropriancy. One of the biggest problems of vocabulary is teaching how to select which words to teach. Teaching language functions as well as vocabulary and grammar, language also consists of functions. Language functions include areas such as inviting, refusing, agreeing and disagreeing, suggesting. Typical Function ESA boomerang type lesson could be: Engage - students talk in open class about favorite leisure activities, why they like them, how often they do them. teacher uses prompts to get students opinions on certain other activities. Activate - students walk around class inviting peers to join them in favorite activities until they have found at least 2 students who would like to do so. Study - listen to invitation dialogue on tape. Compare to the language they used and analyze ways of inviting formally/informally and accepting/rejecting such invitations appropriately. Activate - using new language students role-play in pairs.

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