Overview of All English Tenses - Present Tenses - Present Perfect - Usages

 

The main function for the present perfect tense is to relate something in the past to the present. We can do so in a number of ways. First, we have indefinite past actions. 'I have been to Italy twice'. We're not concerned with when it happened, we just simply want to say that it has happened in the past. It's a fact of something I have done in the past but yet it's still true in the present. Unfinished past actions: 'I have lived here for three years'. I started living here in the past and it's still true now. With this usage, you will typically see time expressions. Finally, we have past actions with present results. I have lost my keys. It's implied that I still haven't found them. I lost them in the past. I don't have them now. I've lost my keys.


Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

This unit is about teaching special groups. Teaching beginners requires special skills and psychology. Some of the methodology and techniques required for teaching beginners are be aware of the students's needs, arrange the classroom, making the lessons as visual as possible, always give clear and simple instructions, frequently review previously covered material, asking lot of questions, encouraging students to speak English as much as possible, etc. At the same time the teachers should ensure not to over-correct the students, be sensitive and respond to the students as individuals, create a relaxed and supportive atmosphere, praise and encourage the students, etc. Suitable activities when teaching an individual student are student and teacher discussion, short stories, horoscopes, quizzes, idioms, reading articles from newspapers/magazines, teaching language functions such as telephoning and negotiating, discussing personal history e.g their family, education, etc. When teaching young learner , the teachers need to give clear demonstrations/instructions, teachers should be prepared to make fun of themselves, keep activities short and vary them as often as possible, etc. Teachers should try to give children more attention by making each one of them as his/her assistant, removing peer pressure, boredom and lack of consistency. Problems outside the classroom is not under the teacher?s control and school administration should be made aware of this if it is affecting the student's performance. When teaching business English, the teacher should be aware that not all business English students are highly motivated, the class age can vary tremendously, attendance of students can often be irregular. The teacher should conduct the \"needs analysis\" questionnaire before the beginning of business English course. The reason for conducting a needs analysis with a business English class is to give the teacher the information required to teach future lessons, identify the students? interests and requirements, identify what the students feel are their strengths and weaknesses within the English language, etc. The things to consider for business English teacher are to find out as much as possible about the company, what they do, who are their competitors, etc. But the teachers don't need to have the detailed knowledge of the students' industry as the focus is on teaching English language than the technical knowledge of industry. The teacher should arrive on time, keep record of student's attendance and be prepared to write the post-course report. In monolingual students class, some of the advantages are students will have the same problems with English, students will have a similar cultural background and interests, students will be able to help each other in their native language. When teaching a multilingual class, major advantage is students have no common language other than English. They will communicate only in English with each other and share different cultural aspects and ideas in class.

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