English Grammar Overview - Parts of Speech - Verbs


Moving down our list of parts of speech, we have our verbs. The first big difference between verbs that we need to look at is whether it's an action verb or a state verb. Our action verbs, as the name suggests, mean that we typically can see these things in action. We can see people working and we certainly see people going to various places. Now, we have our state verbs. These are basically indicating a state of being. Two examples would be "seem" and "have" or "own". We have a sentence such as "He seems angry." and "I own my house." You can't actually see the action happening, even though those words are used as verbs. A very big differentiation between the two here as well is, state verbs typically don't take the progressive or continuous form. That form is the verb "+ing". As I said before, "He seems angry." It would be very awkward to hear someone say "He's seeming angry." Additionally, "own" I said "I own my house." It would seem very awkward to hear somebody say "He is owning his house." However, these action verbs do often take the "-ing" form. We could easily say "They are working." or "They are going." These are the progressive or continuous forms of the verb. We'll get into that when we talk about our various tenses. Another important type of verb is the auxiliary verb, more commonly referred to as the helping verb. These verbs aren't the main verbs within a sentence but they help us form various structures. For instance, they can help us make questions. If I ask the question "Do I live in Tokyo," "do" is the auxiliary verb. It helped me form the question. It helps us form negatives. If I said "I do not live in Tokyo." Again, it's helping me form the negative statement and the auxiliary verb there is "do". It helps us form the short answers. If I were to be asked "Do you live in Tokyo?" I can form the short answer "Yes, I do." Here, the auxiliary verb in the short answer must reflect the auxiliary verb used in the question.

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The future tenses are used to explain things that will occur in the future. Some of the most common forms of future tenses are: ? Future Simple The future simple is structured with the subject + will/shall + the verb (affirmative). The future simple is usually used to: - State future facts and certainties. For example: Winter will start in November. - It is used to talk about promises. For example: I will pay the rent next month. - To make predictions. For example: It will rain tomorrow. - Assumptions/Speculations. For example: They will win the next basketball game. - Spontaneous decisions. For example: We will go out tomorrow. -Threats. For example: I will report you to the principal if you don?t leave me alone. Shall is usually used formally in affirmative sentences. It is used to make suggestions or even invitations. For example: Shall we talk? ? Future Continuous The future continuous is formed with the subject +will+ be + the present participle of the verb. The future continuous is usually used to: - State future actions that are in progress. For example: In three hours, I will be watching my favourite movie. - To predict or guess the present. For example: I don?t think they will be winning the championship. - Polite enquiries. For example: Will you be coming to the birthday party? - Future fixed events. For example: The debate competition will be starting at 3 pm next Tuesday. ? Future Perfect The form of the future perfect is the subject + will + have + the past participle of the verb. The future perfect is usually used to say that something will have been done or completed by a certain time in the future. For example: The Architect says he will have finished the plan for the house by next Friday. ? Future perfect continuous In the affirmative, the form of the future perfect continuous is the subject +will + have+ been+ present participle of the verb. The future perfect continuous is used to say the duration of something by a certain time in the future. For example: I will have been living in China for six years by 2017. ? ?Going to? Future This is formed by the verb to be in the present + going to+ base form of the verb. This structure is always followed by a verb. The ?going to? future is usually used for: - Intentions. For example: I am not going to attend the annual Staff party. - Predictions. For example: I think it?s going to rain later! - Plans. For example: I am going to visit my best friend in June. ? Present simple ( future form) The present simple includes the subject + the base form of the verb [+ s/es]. Some usages of the present simple in the future form with example sentences are: - To suggest more formal situation. For example: The new school year begins in September. - For timetables and schedules. For example: The train to Wuhan leaves at 5:30 pm. - To suggest an impersonal tone. For example: They leave next Thursday for Jamaica. ? Present Continuous ( future form) The present continuous is made with the present simple tense of the auxiliary verb to be and the present participle (verb + ing). Some usages of the present continuous in the future form are: - Definite arrangements. For example: I am starting my new job as a TEFL teacher in September 2017. - For decisions and plans without a time frame. For example: I will be leaving China.

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