English Grammar Overview - Parts of Speech - Adjectives


Moving further down our list of parts of speech, we have our adjectives. Adjectives modify or describe nouns. Basically, they give more information about the noun. Here, we've used a noun such as chair. It could be any old chair. It's only the noun. If we want to describe the noun, we need to use an adjective before it. So, I could say "I have an old black leather chair". Here, we have to be concerned about the adjective order. In this instance, I started with age, as age typically goes before color and then I use the color to go before the material. This is a certain pattern. Depending on the adjectives you want to use, you always have to use certain patterns to which you'll need to be aware of when teaching your class. Another way to describe a noun is by showing possession. We do so by using our possessive adjectives. Earlier, we used the example of "chair" as the noun. We talked about it in terms of age, material, etc. Now, we could add words, such as "my", "your", "his", "her", "its", "our" and "their" also to describe the chair. "It's my chair" or "it's her chair" or "it's our chair". These are not to be confused with possessive pronouns, which of course we'll get into in just a moment. When forming our comparatives and our superlatives, we always have to be concerned with spelling patterns. With one-syllable adjectives, such as fast and old, where we have two consonants at the end, we simply add our "-er" or our "-est". However, with one-syllable adjectives where the pattern is "consonant vowel consonant", we have to double our final consonant before adding "-er" or before adding "-est". Now, with two-syllable adjectives that end in "-y", we drop our "y" and add "-ier" or "-iest". However, with all other two-syllable or three-syllable adjectives, we don't simply put "-er" or "-est" at the end. We'll typically keep the adjective as the same adjective, here "modern", but in order to make the comparative, we'll add "more" before "modern" and when forming the superlative, we'll put "the most" before the adjective "modern" and finally when looking at our comparatives and superlatives, we must be aware that there are some irregular comparatives and superlatives. Two of the most common are the adjectives "good", changing to the comparative "better" and to the superlative "the best". We also have the adjective "bad" changing to the comparative "worse" and the superlative "the worst".

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

It is hard to say that there is one method of teaching is best comparing others. There are some factors such as personality of the teacher, the culture of students and their needs to decide which one is good for the teachers and the students. Every method has some advantages and disadvantages as well. First one is Grammar- Translation which is very old but still practised in many situations. You need to know the native language and the target language. It based on reading and writing and never intended for learning speaking. The next one is Audio- lingualism is based upon behaviourist theories of learning. It focus on long repetition drills bu far from realistic concept. The next one is Presentation, Practice and Production method, in this method the teacher presents the context then the students practice making sentences. It is useful for the lower levels but too teacher- centred. The next one is Task- Based Learning, It concentres more on a task than the language. The other one is Communicative Language Teaching, in this method the focus is language functions such as agreeing, inviting, suggesting etc so role - play and simulation have become popular with this method. The next one is Community Language Learning, the teachers focus on the need to make the lessons as student-centred as possible allowing the students to choose the topic and language. The next one is The silent way, they used cognition in the learning process. The other one is Suggestopaedia, the lesson has mainly three parts, it focuses on the need for the students to be comfortable, confident and relaxed for learning more effective. And the Lexical approach is the another one which focuses on words and phrases. Although there are some positive and negative sides of the methods,they can be used for different situations. The students need to be motivated and stimulated learning languages. So ESA method is an effective method for trainee and new teachers. It consists of three parts which are engaged, study, and activate. In engage part includes games, music, interesting pictures, stories etc. The aim is to warm up the students and get them thinking and speaking in English as much as possible. For example, if you want to teach clothes to the the students, you can bring some pictures of the clothes and ask them what they are. Next stage is study, in this stage we need to focus on the language and how it's constructed. This stage usually starts with elicitation. After that you can give some exercises then you can check their understanding. The last stage is Activate, typical activate activities include role-plays, communication games, debates, story writing etc. Also the teachers can use the lesson as a Straight Arrow ESA lesson and Boomerang ESA lesson, and Patchwork ESA lesson. One of the most important thing teaching English is giving feedback to the students. The aim of this is to encourage self- awareness and improvement. There are some correction techniques . It is important to know the difference between mistakes and errors. A mistake can be thought of as a slip of the tongue or the pen but error is something more ingrained. To sum up, ESA method allows us encourage and motivate students. The teachers let the students speak English as much as they can. There are some rules in every stage of the lesson and if we follow the rules , we can get more benefit from the ESA method.

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