The noun refers to a person, place or thing. There are common, proper, compound, abstract, and collective nouns. Common nouns are referring to common things without a capital letter (like teacher, dog, cat, home, grass). Proper nouns are always with a capital letter. Compound nouns are two nouns joined together to make a new noun (like post office, bus driver, sunshine). Abstract nouns are what we can experience as an idea but cannot touch (like intelligence, happiness, and democracy). Collective nouns are referring to groups of things as a singular object (like a family, flock, herd). Plural nouns are formed by adding a s to the end of the noun. This applies in almost every case unless the noun ends in ch, sh, x, and s; you add es instead. Nouns that end in y are treated by changing the y to an i and then adding es. Countable nouns are able to have a/an/the in front of it and be used in the plural. Uncountable nouns cannot be counted nor plural (music, advice, rice, water, information).
Adjectives are used to describe nouns. Comparison adjectives have er at the end of it. Superlatives are followed by est.
Articles are separated into two different categories: definite and indefinite. Indefinite articles are a and an. It is used when referring to general things. Some is an indefinite article. The definite article is the. It is used to refer to something unique. It is used before rivers/points on a globe/geographical areas and also to make an uncountable noun specific.
Verbs are either transitive or intransitive. Transitive verbs are followed directly by an object. They do not work without the subject following it. Intransitive verbs do not need to be followed by directly by an object. Infinitives are the base form of a verb. Auxiliary verbs are verbs in a sentence that do not carry the main meaning (be, do, have).
Adverbs describe the verb. They are separated by manner (well, hard, slowly), place (above, up, here, there), time (now, then soon, recently), degree (very, much, really, quite), and frequency (once, twice, sometimes, always).
Gerunds are the use of a verb as a noun.
Pronouns are words that are used in place of a noun. There are personal (I, me, you, she, him, they, them), possessive (mine, yours, hers), reflexive (herself, yourself, ourselves), and relative (who, which, that, whose).
Prepositions show the relationship between a noun/pronoun and another word in a sentence. The main types are time/date (at, on, by, before, during, since), movement (from, to, into. on), place/position (in, at, on, above).
Conjunctions join words in a sentence. They are used either to join words of the same class (and, but, not, or, yet) or to join clauses of sentences (because, as soon as, as, before, unless).