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I have learnt that there are parts of speech to compose a sentence.
1. Nouns name people, animals, things, qualities, states. They comprise of common nouns, proper nouns, compound nouns, abstract nouns, and collective nouns. Most of them are either countable or uncountable while some can be both depending on the sense in which they are used.
2. Adjectives are used to modify nouns. Beside the base form, adjectives are also used in comparative form ("short adjective" + ...er than / more "long adjective" than) or superlative form (the "short adjective" + ...est / the most "long adjective") when we want to make comparisons.
3. Articles are followed by a noun/noun phrase, and give us certain information about the noun/noun phrase they precede, depending on whether an indefinite (a or an) or the definite article (the) is used.
4. Verbs are words referring to actions or states of people/things, and used to form the basis of a sentence. They are grouped into transitive verbs and intransitive verbs, though some transitive verbs can be used as intransitive ones. The forms of verbs are diverse: base form, past simple, past participle, and present participle. While the past simple and past participle of regular verbs are formed by adding -ed at the end of the verb, many of the most common verbs are irregular and no particular rule can be applied to their formation, hence both teachers and learners of English language will have no choice but memorize forms of the irregular ones. There is also a special type of verb called the auxiliary verb. Auxiliary verbs do not carry the main meaning but simply help form the structure of a tense or an expression.
5. Adverbs (usually formed by adding "ly" to an adjective) modify verbs to add meaning or information to the action, quality or state indicated by the verbs. They are classified into quite a few types: manner, place, time, degree (can also be used to modify an adjective or another adverb), frequency, comment/attitude, linking, viewpoint, adding/limiting. When multiple adverbs follow a verb in a sentence, this sequence of "place > manner > time" can be applied for their placement in most cases.
6. A gerund is the "-ing" form of a verb used like a noun, as a subject or an object in a sentence. The gerund of a verb also usually follows a preposition or some verbs such as "admit", "consider", "remember", etc.
7. Pronouns are words that are used in place of more precise nouns or noun phrases. They comprise 4 types: personal, possessive, reflexive, and relative pronouns. Possessive pronouns (used to replace nouns) are often confused with possessive adjectives (used to described nouns).
8. Prepositions show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other words in the sentence. While most prepositions can be placed in one or more categories (time/date, movement, place/position), some common ones don't really fit into any category.
9. Conjunctions are used to join words of the same class, or clauses of a sentence.
In each part of speech, there are always exceptions which should be noticed.