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Nouns. A noun names people, places, things, qualities,states. You have Main Types. Proper nouns: names, states, planets etc. Then there is also the Compound Nouns: textbook sunshine etc. Abstract Nouns: intelligence etc. Democracy Nouns: beauty etc. Collective Nouns: posse, Family pride etc. Plurals. Noun Plurals are usually created by adding s. If the noun ends in ch, sh, x, s, we usually add es. A noun that ends in a consonant plus y, the y will usually change to an i then add es. A noun ending in an f will usually replace the f with a v and then add es. But there are some exceptions. Antonym a word that has the exact opposite meaning . For example: "fast" and "slow". Countable Nouns: People, creatures and things that can be counted. They can be preceded by articles a/an/the, and can be used in the plural. Uncountable Nouns: Things that cant be counted. They can have a or an in front of them, and can not be used in the plural. Note that some nouns can be countable and uncountable depending on the sense in which they are used. Much is used with uncountable nouns and many is used with countable nouns. Adjectives: We use adjectives to describe nouns such as people and things. Adjectives are often used in clusters or groups of two to three. There is an order to adjectives, size-age-colour-material-noun. But it is not set stone. Adjectives can become very complicated, there are many other types of rules.The more books you read on this topic, the more exceptions and differences of opinion you will find. Comparisons (comparatives): We use comparisons to come pair lets say two people of different age. Francois is older than Mindy. Mindy is younger than Francois. These sentences contain the comparative form of adjectives. (adjective)+ er than. Some short Adjectives change the final y into i, Happy,happier, easy, easier, etc. Others double the final consonant n, t or d when preceded by single, short vowel- hot, hotter, thin, thinner, etc. Adjectives of more than two syllables do not add er, because it is too unwieldy to say, but are preceded by the word more. Comparisons (superlatives): the (adjective)+ est. As with comparatives, adjectives with three syllables or more are preceded by the word most to form the superlative. Note that a few short adjectives change the final y into an i-easy, easiest, early, earliest, etc. Others double the final consonant: n, t, or d when preceded by a single, short vowel- sad, saddest, etc. There are also a few irregular comparative and superlative forms. Some examples. Adjectives: good bad Comparative: better worse Superlative: best worst. Articles: There are two types of articles in English: definite (the) and indefinite (a and an). The use of these articles mainly depends on whether you are referring to any member of a group. Indefinite Articles: a and an. A and an indicate that the noun modified is indefinite, referring to any member of a group. The Indefinite articles are used with singular nouns (and only singular nouns). The rules are: a+ singular noun beginning with a consonant: a ball. an+ singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant. a+ singular noun beginning with a consonant sound: a uniform (this sounds like yooniform i.e.begins with the consonant y sound, so a is used). (some+ plural noun: some balls some elephants). If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article, rather than the noun itself. Also that in English, the two indefinite articles are used to indicate membership of a category or group as in a profession, nation, type of plant or religion. Definite Article: the. The definite article the is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is particular or specific. the signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group in other words, you know which one.The is also used when a noun refers to something which is unique. There are some specific rules for the geographical uses of the. The is also used with uncountable nouns that are made more specific by a limiting modifying phrase or clause, making an uncountable noun specific.The is not used with nouns referring to something in a general sense. To complicate matters more, there are a number of common countable nouns that are often treated as uncountable and used without an article, taking taking a preposition instead. Verbs: A verb is a doing word. Its used with a subject to form the basis of a sentence. however, 'doing' doesn't really cover everything; as well as actions, verbs can refer to states. All verbs are either transitive or intransitive. A Transitive verb is a verb that is followed directly by an object. Invite is another example of a transitive verb. An intransitive verb is a verb that cannot be followed directly by an object. It does not do anything to anyone or any thing. It simply 'does' an action; it stands alone. Verbs of movement like go, arrive, and skate are examples of intransitive verbs. These verbs or actions are often related to time, place, frequency etc. The same verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on how they're used. Infinitives: All verbs have a base form. However, we often refer to the infinitives of a verb. This refers to the action as a whole and id formed by preceding the base form with to. Some intransitives verbs are followed by infinites to denote a consequence of an action. Some verbs have irregular forms. Unfortunately many of the most common verbs are irregular, and have no rules as to their formation. Auxiliary Verbs: Auxiliary verbs help form a tense or an expression by combining with present or past participles or infinitives of other verbs. An auxiliary verb is not the verb that carries the main meaning; it simply helps form a structure. there are only three auxiliary verbs: do, have and be. Adverbs: In general these add meaning or information to the action, hence the name. Adverbs of degree can also modify an adjective or another adverb. An adverb will normally be placed after the object of a transitive verb. Adverbs are usually placed immediately after an intransitive verb. However adverbs of frequency are placed between the subject and the verb or between the auxiliary verb and the verb. There is no hard and fast rule when several adverbs follow the verb, but it is helpful to bear this sequence in mind: place-manner-time. Gerunds: A gerund is the-ing form of a verb used as a noun (as opposed to the present participle which is the-ing form as a verb structure). A gerund is used in the same way as a noun, i.e. as a subject or an object. Some verbs, such as admit, consider, delay, remember, like etc. are usually followed by the gerund form when another verb is used. Prepositions are sometimes followed by the gerund if an action is indicated. Pronouns: Pronouns are words that are used instead/in place of more precise nouns or noun phrases. Types Personal-Possessive-Reflexive-Relative. Whilst being fairly simple in usage, students of many nationalities have a tendency to confuse subject pronouns (which come before a verb in an ordinary sentence) with object pronouns (which normally come after a verb). Possessive pronouns like mine are often confused with possessive adjectives such as my. like other pronouns, possessive pronouns replace nouns, while possessive adjectives describe them. Common confusion between the two involves his and its, as both can be either possessive pronouns or possessive adjectives, depending on how they're used in a sentence. Preposition (Conjunction): Preposition show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and other word in the sentence Prepositions can be one of the most difficult grammatical points for both student and teachers alike. The difficulty lies in the fact that there is no uniformity when is comes to preposition placement. However we can say that there are at least three categories: Time/date-Movement-Place/position. Conjunctions: Conjunction join words or groups in a sentence. They can do two things: Join words of the same class, i.e. pairs of nouns/adjectives/adverbs/verbs/phrases. Join clauses of a sentence. I have learned so much about grammar. I have learned about nouns, Plurals, antonyms, countable nouns, uncountable nouns, adjectives, comparisons, superlatives, articles, verbs, transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, verb forms, auxiliary verbs, adverbs, gerunds, pronouns, prepositions, and conjunctions. I now have an much better understanding of why we use some words is a certain way in a sentence.
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