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Grammar can pose as a difficult topic for both students and teachers. Thankfully, a logical approach to the subject will likely decrease many difficulties. Teachers are not expected to be a "walking grammar reference book" but it is important to note that a teacher's knowledge of grammar will bring the students confidence in both themselves and the teachers. A basic sentence is the simplest form of sentence structure: at least a subject and verb (however, sentences typically include more words.) For example, observe the sentence: "The doctor examined the patient" It features a subject, verb, and object (person/ thing affected by the action.) The doctor is the subject of the sentence and is also the one taking action, as expressed by the verb "examined," and the patient, the person to whom the action is applied, is the object of the sentence. The function and meaning of a word within a sentence can be classified in more detail, specifically, as the different parts of speech. Below, we will learn about nouns, adjectives, articles, verbs, adverbs, gerunds, pronouns, prepositions, and conjunctions. Nouns are used to name people, animals, places, things, qualities, states. The main types of nouns are: Common train, school, house, elephant No capital letter Proper Nick, Mars, Spain Always capital letter Compound Textbook Combination of two nouns to form 1 Abstract Happiness, peace, capitalism, intelligence An idea we can experience but cannot touch) Collective Posse, family, herd, pack A group of individuals that form a group and then are referred to as the one singular group. Plurals are nouns that indicate more than one and are typically created by adding an s or es, depending on the way the nouns end. For instance, the plural for rock is rocks; the plural for watch is watches; the plural for thief is thieves; and the plural of family is families. Tooth (plural : teeth) is an example of one of many exceptions. Others include tooth - teeth, woman-women, etc. Some nouns do not change from singular to plural forms, i.e. sheep and fish are both the singular and plural forms of the noun Irregular noun plurals must be memorized by students due to the lack of existing rules for these particular types of nouns. Nouns can be countable or uncountable, meaning that they can either be counted or not. Those that can be counted may be used in the plural form and are preceded by the articles a/an/the. The uncountable nouns cannot be used in the plural and cannot be preceded by the articles a or an. Nevertheless, nouns are not always exclusively one or the other and can change depending on the context and sense in which we use them. Adjectives are words that describe nouns and are commonly used in conversations. A single adjective and clusters/lists of adjectives can be used to describe a person, place, or thing. When using a list of adjectives, they should follow this basic rule: 1. size 2. color 3. material + noun. Adjectives can also be used to compare people or things. If we wish to compare two people or things, we use comparative adjectives. A regular comparison of two people or things follows the pattern adjective + …er than. Joe is older than Jude is one example of regular comparisons; easy - easier, thin - thinner. If adjectives have more than two syllables, the word more precedes the adjective (no -er is added;) for example, This test is more difficult than the last one. The superlative form is applied when comparing more than two people or things - a group: the (adjective) + …est. Two examples are: 1. He is the shortest 2. This is the most difficult test in the entire semester. Irregular comparatives are also to be memorized by the students. For example, the adjective good becomes better when n comparative form and best in the superlative. The English language has two types of articles; the type we use is primarily dependent on whether one is referring to any individual in a group, or if one is referring specifically to one of the individuals in the group. Indefinite articles: a and an indicate that the modified noun is indefinite and are used with singular nouns. Whether we use an or a depends on the first letter of the noun (or adjective) that follows the article. Examples: 1. A broken heart. 2 A dog 3. An ugly sweater 4. An activity. Definite article: the can be used before both singular and plural nouns. The article 'the' is indicative of a definite noun because it refers to people or things that are particular/specific. It is used to refer to something that was previously mentioned or to refer to something that is unique. Verbs Verbs are action words and are often known as a 'doing' word, although it is important to note that verbs can also refer to states. For instance, 'run, play, sing' are action verbs while 'seem, feel, be, taste, smell' are state verbs. Verbs can be transitive or intransitive, the former is a verb followed directly by an object and the latter is a verb that cannot be followed directly by an object.. Some verbs can be transitive or intransitive depending on their usage in the sentence. For example, in the sentence England won the game, 'won' is transitive. In the sentence England won, 'won' is intransitive. The infinitive of a verb is the action as a whole; the word 'to' is placed before the base form of the verb. The four principal forms of verbs in English are base form, past simple, past participle, and present participle. Many common verbs, however, have irregular forms and lack formation rules. An example would be blow (base form), blew (past simple), blown (past participle), and blowing (present participle). Auxiliary verbs combine with present or past participles or infinitives of other verbs It does not carry the main meaning but rather aids form a structure and often help form tenses. The three auxiliary verbs are: do, have, and be. Adverbs generally enhance the meaning or information regarding the action, quality or state denoted by a verb and can also modify an adjective/other adverb. The five main types of adverbs are manner (e.g. slowly), place (e.g. there), time (e.g. soon), degree (e.g. quite), and frequency (e.g. sometimes). Typically, adverbs are formed by adding 'ly' to an adjective, for example, the adjective slow becomes the adverb slowly. Gerunds are the -ing form of a verb that is used as a noun. Pronouns replace more precise nouns or noun phrases. The types are: personal (e.g. him, she, we), possessive (e.g. mine, theirs), reflexive (e.g. herself, themselves, ourselves), and relative (e.g. who, which, that, whose - used to connect sentence clauses and introduce relative clauses). Monday, August 13, 2018 2:23 PM Conjunctions join words/groups and do either one of two things: 1. join words of the same class, i.e. and, but, both, neither…nor. 2. join clauses in a sentence, i.e. as soon as, since, until.