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In this lesson I learned about the aspect of pronunciation. It is very important so that students will be able to recognize the fall or rise of speech and detect certain sounds. There isn't always one way to say something so pronunciation can extend the students knowledge of the language. Phonology is the study, science, analysis and classification of physical properties of sounds. This helps students in areas of stress, rhythm and intonation. These are relevant to helping the student understand the meaning of what is being said. Intonation is the variation and pitch in an entire sentence. It is important in recognizing emotions or feelings, agreeing or disagreeing and questioning. There are different types of intonation such as rise/fall which is the normal pattern. Another is fall/rise which indicates surprise and sometimes disagreement, but it also prompts the person to whom is speaking to respond. The last one is flat which signifies the speaker doesn't have much to say. There are a few techniques for indicating and teaching intonation: Nonsense words, By gesture, Humming or Singing or The board. Nonsense words can be used to practice conveying attitude. Gesture would be using your hand to recognize if there is a high pitch or low pitch and the direction. Humming or singing to hear the stress. The board would be to visibly show marks and emphasize the points being made. Moving forward to stress we have to consider that it is the strong part of the sentence that bears the most emphasis. Also another factor to remember is that we can only stress syllables, not individual vowels or consonants. There is also the lack of stress which in normal speech there are more syllables without stress. Pronouns and prepositions are normally unstressed. A few ways to detect stress would be by gesture (clapping or clicking fingers), chorals work (chanting or singing rhythms), board work and stress marks. Another factor of pronunciation is sound joining. There are four major ways: linking, sound dropping, sound changing and extra lettering. Linking is the merging of multiple words together. Sound dropping is the omitting of a sound in a word. You also have sound changing for example like Green Park or Greem Park. Lastly, there is extra lettering in which it is self explanatory but you add a letter to a word in a sentence. The next section went over the phonemic alphabet which can be helpful with practicing pronunciation. It uses symbols and words in a different way to represent an English word. One thing that is important when studying or reading these is to not focus on the traditional spelling but more the sounds that it makes. If you look in a dictionary you can find the phonemic symbols next to the actual word. Another part of pronunciation is articulating words. There are certain parts of your body that are connected to articulation. These parts are the Velar, Palatal, Palatal-alveolar, Alveolar, Dental, Labio-dental, Bilabial and Glottal. The 6 manners of articulation are plosive, fricative, nasal, lateral, affricate, and approximant. Plosive the air is blocked before being released in an explosive manner. Fricative the air is being pushed through a very small space while friction is produced. Nasal is air that escapes through the nasal cavity. Lateral is air escaping through the sides of the tongue. Affricate is the release of air through plosive merges with fricative form. Approximant is sound produced by narrowing the vocal tract. A few teaching techniques for individual sounds would be students speaking words or sentences, showing them through your own mouth and emphasizing sounds and then visuals like a mouth diagram. You should include pronunciation in a whole lesson, you could do lesson slots or even just when questions come up in class teach it.