How to Pronounce 'PETULANT' - English Pronunciation
In this episode, we cover the pronunciation of the word petulant. This word refers to someone being rude in speech or behavior. Synonyms for the word petulant include grumpy, snarky or tempered. The word comes from the Latin petulant meaning to go to and attack.
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Conditionals are sentences with an \"if\" clause and a main clause: \"if this happens, that happens\". The condition in the \"if\" clause must be met for the consequence in the main clause to take place. There are five conditionals. (1) The zero conditional is used for general facts and truths, and situations that are certain to happen. It is in the form of \"if/when + present tense, present tense.\" Example: If the weather is hot, we perspire. (2) The first conditional is used for possible future situations, promises, and threats/warnings. It is in the form of \"if + present simple, will + base form.\" Example: If the weather is hot, I might go to the beach. (3) The second conditional is used for dreams, fantasies, or hypothetical situations in the present/future. It is in the form of \"if + past simple/past continuous, would/could/might + base form.\" Example: If the weather was hot, I would go to the beach. (4) The third conditional is used for a hypothetical past situation with a hypothetical past consequence, such as regrets and excuses. It is in the form of \"if + past perfect, would/could/might + have + past participle.\" Example: If the weather had been hot, I could have gone to the beach. (5) Lastly, the mixed conditional is used for a hypothetical past situation with a hypothetical present consequence. It is in the form of \"if + past perfect, would/could/might + base form.\" Example: If the weather had been hot, I would go to the beach now.
Direct speech is when we direct quote someone, and when written, we use quotation marks. Reported speech is when we recount the direct speech to someone else. In reported speech not only do we change the pronouns used, but we also backshift verb tenses, time expressions, and pronouns that indicate physical locations. In contrast to direct speech, we do not use quotation marks for reported speech.
Through this lesson I've learned about the backshifting rule for reported speech. It came naturally the form when I would retell someone something. I didn't know that there were rules when backshifting for verb tenses. For the time expressions, I would always report using specific time expressions, but now I've learned other new ones that are acceptable but seemed off to me before because of the time difference between the direct speech and the reported speech. Such as \"today\" to \"that day\", or \"yesterday\" or \"tomorrow\" to \"the day before\" or \"the next day.\"