In this episode, we cover the pronunciation of the word hidebound. This word refers to an unwillingness to change because of a tradition. Some synonyms for hidebound include conservative, conventional and reactionary.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
This unit discussed different methodologies that have been used throughout the teaching of ESL. It then went on to discuss the method that the course is based around: ESA. The stages of this are Engage, Study, and Activate. A huge part of this is eliciting responses and participation from students. Various techniques were given (flashcards, drawings, etc.) and it was also stated that you should use a variety of these techniques to keep lessons from becoming predictable or boring. Regarding elicitation, it is also important to be aware of where students are in terms of language level and to stay positive. They went on to discuss what each stage of ESA involves. The engage level is to boost interest and encourage involvement to \"warm up\" the class. This stage does not need to relate to what will be taught and new information should not be introduced here. The study stage is where new information is first presented and the main focus is on construction of the language. The activate stage puts what the students know and have recently learned together. The main focus is on fluency rather than accuracy. Each of these stages presented once in that order is called the \"Straight Arrow\" lesson. However, they do not need to be used exactly like this and one stage can occur multiple times as long as they start with the engage stage and end with activate. Other variances introduced where the \"Boomerang\" and \"Patchwork\" lessons. From here the unit gave ideas for activities that can be used in the engage, study, and activate stages. The unit went on to discuss correction and feedback, which are important to encourage progress and self-awareness of the students. It is very important to stay positive when giving feedback to avoid discouraging the students. It is also important to know that mistakes and errors are not the same and that mistakes can be easily corrected, but errors may be made because the student(s) believe it is correct or they don't know the correct form or can't get it right. It is also important to allow the student to correct themselves when possible. Students can also be given the opportunity to correct each other, but you should not use this method if you think the student will get uncomfortable or more confused. If neither of these work, the teacher should correct them. The unit then went on to give examples of when and how teachers should correct. For example, the teacher should not be correcting during the engage stage and it is more important for them to correct when accuracy is the focus.