How to Pronounce 'BELATED' - English Pronunciation
In this episode, we cover the pronunciation of the word "belated". This word refers to something that happened later than it should have. A common use of the word is in the following phrase "Happy belated birthday," used by people who wish someone a happy birthday after the actual birthday. Synonyms for belated include late and overdue.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Starting with the Modal Auxiliary Verbs, there?s really only 9 main one.
9. Could There are many ways we can use these Modal Auxiliary Verbs, the most common usages include:
1. Abilities ? ?I can use my Bicycle?
2. Advice ? ?You should go to see a doctor?
3. Deductions ? ?He?s soaking we.
It must be raining?
4. Obligations ? ?I must finish this report by tomorrow?
5. Offers ? ?Would you like anything to drink??
6. Permissions ? ?May I/Can I/Could I leave work early today??
7. Possibilities ? ?You can buy tickets at the door or in advance?
8. Predictions ? ?I think my team will win the league?
9. Prohibitions ? ?You mustn?t smoke in here?
10. Promises ? ?I will always love you?
11. Requests ? ?Could you help me with this?? There are multiple ways you can try to teach students these Modals and their usage.
Like for example, the word ?Can? could be taught by letting the class think of sentences that might include their Abilities, or when saying Advice, Possibilities or Requests or even when asking for Permission, all while using the word ?Can? in each sentenc.
This might be a good method to teach Beginner, Elementary and possibly Intermediate students, however, when teaching students who have more knowledge about Modals, you could teach them by asking them to give a sentence with some advice in it, like ?You should go to see a doctor?, and then to think of other Modals to replace the Modal in this sentenc.
So instead of ?Should?, they could add ?Can?, ?Could?, ?Must? or ?Will (like when a parent is disciplining their child).
Then from there, the students could begin an activity where they each use the Modals in sentences with varying levels of deman.
Such as ?You must go see the doctor? means you?re telling them to go there as soon as possible, and ?You could go see the doctor? meaning it isn?t important to see the doctor, but you recommend doing s.
Difficulties students and teachers have when teaching Modal Auxiliary Verbs can include when presenting the sentence ?I don?t like swimming?, and getting the students to make a statement by adding a Modal Auxiliary Verb in the sentenc.
They often say ?I don?t can swim?, when the correct sentence is in fact ?I can not swim.
We instead switch the word ?don?t? with ?cannot? and omit the word ?like?, which doesn?t match some structures you may have taught the students previousl.
Another difficulty comes with questions, like ?Do you like swimming?.
The Auxiliary Verb ?Do? starts the question when taking plain Auxiliary Verbs into account, but when taking Modal Auxiliary Verbs into account, we instead ask questions, like ?Can you swim?.
Hence why a student may mistakenly ask a question like ?Do you can swim?.
One more problem students might have is when forming positive sentences 3rd person singula.
From the sentence ?He likes swimming?, students may think it?s necessary to add an ?s in the word ?swim?, like in ?He can swims.
He does swim (.
?He swims?), but when introducing the Modal Verb ?Can?, we omit the ?.
Students also have trouble in what?s called ?Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verbs.
For example, when considering Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verb; ?need to?, in the sentence ?I need to work every day?, students may not understand that we DO add on the ?s when referring to someone else, like saying ?He needs to work every day.
However, we actually leave out the ?s when giving a negative in the original sentence, like in ?I don?t need to work every day.
But when you ask it in a question with a Semi-Modal, unlike normal Modal Auxiliary Verbs, we actually have to start sentences like we do with plain Auxiliary Verb.
One last problem students may have is due to the fact that Modal Auxiliary Verbs have no tens.
Some Modals can?t be used to talk about the past or the future, only the presen.
In the sentence ?You must be in class by 9:30 every day?, students usually think it is right, when talking about the past, to say ?You must were in class??, this is clearly wron.
They may also think it is right to say ?You must have been in class by 9:30 every day?, however this is a deduction, not an obligatio.
By this time the students may not understand, which is norma.
What you actually need to do is realise that the word ?must? (and/or other Modals) can?t be used to talk about the past, so we must instead use Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verbs to correctly use this sentence to refer to the pas.
The correct sentence would be ?You had to be in class by 9:30 every day.
There are 2 ways which we can re-write a sentence with the same tense and meanin.
These changes are referred to as the Active Voice and Passive Voic.
Keep in mind, this Units focus is mainly on the Passive Voic.
The Active Voice in a sentence looks like: ?Subject -> Verb -> Object? Where-as the Passive Voice in a sentence looks like: ?Object -> Verb -> Subject? Looking at the example given in the accompanying video for the Unit, ?George Orwell wrote Animal Farm.
George Orwell is the Subject at the start of the sentence and Animal Farm is the Object at the end of the sentence, therefore this sentence is in Active Voic.
However, when starting with the Object; ?Animal Farm?, we form the sentence ?Animal Farm was written by George Orwell.
Animal Farm is the Object at the start of the sentence and George Orwell is the Subject at the end of the sentence, therefore this sentence is in Passive Voic.
For a more detailed look at how to change the Active Voice to the Passive Voice when using the Tense of the sentence to assist in properly forming the sentence, please refer to the Unit?s video and watch between 26:36 and 29:49 (It would be too confusing and too long if I were to write what the man said, as opposed to showing it.
Be aware, the biggest difficulty for students when using the Passive Voice is putting the Verb ?to be? into its correct tens.
Also be careful that when writing in the Active Voice, there must be a doer of an actio.
So a country, for example, cannot do an action, but its citizens ca.
The Usages for the Passive Voice include:
1. Unknown Agent ? ?A man was murdered last night? (who murdered the man? We don?t know)
2. Unimportant Agent ? ?The house was built in 1950? (who build the house? We don?t really care)
3. Change Focus ? ?Macbeth was written by Shakespeare? (we want to focus on Macbeth, not Shakespeare)
4. Concealing the Agent ? ?I was told you stole my money? (rather than saying who stole your money, you?ve concealed his/her identity) As a side note, Relative Clauses (also called Adjective Clauses) help those Passive Voice sentences by giving the missing information in a short clause within the sentenc.
There are 3 types of Relative Clauses:
1. Independent Clause ? A complete sentence that contains the main subject and verb of a sentence
2. Dependant Clause ? An incomplete sentence that must be connected to an Independent clause
3. Relative Clause ? A dependant clause that modifies a Noun and can describe, identify or give further information about the Noun And on top of these there are also:
1. Defining Relative Clauses ? Is essential to the meaning of the sentence
2. Non-defining Relative Clauses ? Is NOT essential to the meaning of the sentence For example, ?My Girlfriend has been arrested? is a Passive Voice sentenc.
However we can add a Relative Clause to add information to the Noun like ?My Girlfriend who lives at number 35 has been arrested?, which now tells us it?s that exact girlfriend I have who lives at number
35. Without commas, it strongly suggests I have more than one girlfriend!! Making it a Defining Relative Claus.
On the other hand though, if I were to change it to ?My girlfriend, who lives at number 35, has been arrested?, the commas now give an indication that I only have 1 girlfriend!! It wasn?t a necessity to say where she lived because it wasn?t essential to the basic information, but it?s still adding missing information from the sentence regardles.
So this new sentence is a Non-Defining Claus.
Remember, the sentence wouldn?t be a Passive Voice sentence if we knew every detail!! Lastly, according to the materials, ?Phrasal Verbs, or multi-word verbs, consist of a verb plus one or two particle.
(A particle may be a preposition or an adverb, or an adverb plus a prepositio.
) They operate as one item.
This simply means that there are 2 or more verbs in one sentence, such as ?She told Paul off?, ?the terrorists tried to blow up the train?, ?fill out this survey, please? and ?I really look up to Gabe.
There are 3 types of Phrasals:
1. Type 1: Intransitive ? Cannot be followed by a direct object and are inseparable; ?He didn?t turn up?
2. Type 2: Transitive Separable ? An object Pronoun can only come between the Verb and the Particle, and the object Noun can come either between the verb and the particle or after the particle; ?She took her on? as opposed to ?She took on her?, and ?She took Anna on? can work as well as ?She took on Anna? (respectively to their definitions.
3. Type 3: Transitive Inseparable ? The object phrase or object pronoun both came after the particle or Phrasal Verbs that have 2 particles: an adverb followed by a preposition; ?She got over the operation? mentioned first, then you can instead say ?She got over it? and ?She looks up to her grandmother? -> ?My wife puts up with a lot of criticism of her cooking.
Use the titles of these types to help identify what type of Phrasal Verb you?re looking a.
Type 2?s can be separated like ?She TURNED ON the radio? can be ?she TURNED the radio ON?, but ?I never GOT ON with my brother? doesn?t make sense when separating the verbs like ?I never GOT with my brother ON.
Because particles frequently change the meaning of the verb, it can make Phrasal Verbs very hard for students to understan.
Therefore they can be best learned as vocabulary item.
When teaching students about Phrasal Verbs, it would be extremely beneficial to them if you, every-so-often, put some in your lesso.
It can be very uncommon to hear Phrasal Verbs, in or out of an English speaking country, so by making them seem more common, students would find them more familiar when used, maybe allowing them to confidently use them themselve.
In terms of teaching the students, choosing a topic for Phrasal Verbs can really benefit how easy they are to lear.
For example, if the subject were driving, that can cover ?Drop off?, ?Pull over?, ?Speed up?, ?Slow down?, ?Get in?, ?Bump into?, ?Catch up with?, ?Keep up with?, ?Run over?, ?Pull out?, ?Turn off?, ?Look out for?, ?Pull into?, ?Fill up?, ?Break down?, ?Run out of?, ?Pick up?, et.
In conclusion, the 9 Modal Auxiliary Verbs are; Will, Would, Should, Shall, Might, May, Must, Can and Could, and there are many more Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verbs which can change the way you write a sentence in a different tens.
When forming sentences with the Active Voice, you start with the Subject, move to the Verb and finish with the Object, where-as the Passive Voice starts with the Object, moves into the Verb again and finishes with the Subjec.
Finally Phrasal Verbs include 2 or more verbs and can be put in one sentence without making the sentence hard to understand, such as ?Get off? and ?Bring up.