Principal vs Principle - English Grammar - Teaching Tips


This video covers the difference between 'principal' and 'principle'. These two words often cause confusion for English learners due to their similar spelling. The word 'principal' can be used as a noun and as an adjective. As a noun, it refers to a person of authority, like a school principal, the head of a school. When used as an adjective, it means 'leading' or 'primary', like a principal cause or reason. The word 'principle', on the other hand, is only used as a noun and refers to a moral or standard, like the principle of free speech.

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

There are various EFL methods. Some of the common and popular EFL teaching methods are grammar-translation, audio-lingualism, presentation-practice-production, task-based learning,communicative language teaching, community language learning, the silent way, suggestopaedia, the lexical approach, and so on. In this course, the all approaches mentioned are mixed in with a lot of flexibility into an effective method called ESA. The elements of the method are Engage, Study, and Activatation thus ESA. Elicitation, which means asking thought-provoking questions, is an extremely useful component of the ESA process. A variety of elicitation techniques help the teacher to get information about what students already know and need to know. All three ESA elements need to be presented in most lessons. Engage stage is the phase that the teacher will try to arouse the students' interest and get them involved in the lesson. Study stage is where the students will focus on the language and how it constructed. Activate stage is where students should be using the language as freely and communicatively possible, thus, focusing on fluency than accuracy. There are different types of ESA methods. The basic form is a 'Straight Arrow' ESA lesson that the teacher takes the lesson in the ESA order. A Boomerang ESA lesson is a variation to make the lesson more interesting. The order is engage-activity1-study-activity2. While both the 'Straight Arrow' and the 'Boomerang' sequence are quite useful, sometimes a lot of mini sequences are needed for students to achieve the learning objectives. In that case, \"Patchwork\" ESA lesson is more flexible and provides us a nice balance between study and activation stages. It just needs to start with an Engage phase and finishes with an Activate. In between, the teacher has a great deal of flexibility to run the class in any order. In terms of correction, we need to bear in mind not to correct too much or too little. Mistakes and errors are not the same. Mistakes can be corrected by students but errors are something deeply ingrained thus harder to be corrected. It is more suitable to correct mistakes and errors in Study phases. We should try to minimize correction during engage and activate stages so that students can focus on communication rather than being afraid of making mistakes.

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