This video covers the difference between 'adapt' and 'adopt'. Due to their similar spelling, their usage is often confused. 'Adapt' describes the action of taking something and changing it for a special purpose, for example: A screenwriter successfully adapts the book to make it work as a movie. The word 'adopt', on the other hand, refers to the action of taking something and using it or making it your own, such as here: Because they couldn't have children of their own, they decided to adopt a child.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Unit 3 focuses on theories, methods and techniques of teaching students. It starts with an overview of the methodology and strategies to effectuate learning and a brief description. The unit describes eight methods or theories of teaching. Choice of teaching method depends on individual factors.
Jeremy Hammer developed a teaching method known as ?ESA ? Engage, Study and Activate? to incorporate elements of the above and allow flexibility in the classroom. ESA is appropriate for trainee and new teachers and the basis of this course.
One facet of ESA is elicitation. Elicitation allows students to speak and allows language discovery and reduces teacher time. There are many methods of elicitation, including the use of props such as objects, flash cards and drawings in addition to asking for questions, gap filling, lists, follow-on questions, concept descriptions, mime and, to a lesser extent, giving a definition of a word. Variation of elicitation techniques is important to help ensure lessons remain interesting and involving. Factors to bear in mind during elicitation include to provide positive re-enforcement and avoid negative feedback to dampen enthusiasm.
ESA, the focus, consists of three components ? engage, study and activate.
?Engage? refers to the warm-up phase of to get students interested and involved in the lesson in should not ?teach? anything in this phase.
?Study? involves student concentration on the language and its structure. Activities commonly start with elicitation. Next, the teacher presents the language point, drills to ensure correct pronunciation, provides exercises or worksheets to check understanding and reinforce the materials and then as a class, reviews answers. The goal is to focus the students on the construction of the language.
?Activate? is to encourage students to use known language, freely and communicatively with a focus on fluency rather than accuracy. Activities may include role-plays, communication games, debates, story writing and other activities.
All three ESA optimally should be present in each lesson to balance the range of student activity but not in any particular order. Sequential change stimulates flexibility but lessons should all start with the stage of ?Engage? and finish with ?Activate?.
Examples of lessons included Straight Arrow, Boomerang and Patchwork. Straight Arrow is a lesson plan based on the standard ESA order of Engage, Study and Activate. Boomerang varies the order while consistent with the rule to start on Engage and end on Activate. Patchwork is mini-sequence building with a learning objective. As between these different plans, Straight Arrow is helpful as the teacher knows what the students need and takes them logically to the point to use the language. Boomerang is useful because it allows teachers to preview student needs before teaching. Patchwork provides, in a sense, the glue to build pieces of the puzzle to the whole and retains flexibility and balance between study and activation.
To start discussions in the Engage phase, teachers need to be mindful of various tools. These tools include activities using prompts, discussions pairing students to share and report and organized events such as Fizz-buzz, alphabet relay, sevens, memory games, word linking, alphabet introductions, going on holiday, slow Pictionary, anagrams, word linking story or dialogue, information search, adaptation of Scattegories, my marvelous machine, box game, sentence prompts, adjectival introductions and consequences.
In the Study phase, teachers may include elicitation, pronunciation, spelling, meaning, word order and analysis. Examples are tongue twisters, hangman, word searches and gap fillers.
Lastly, in the Activate phase, teachers may use role-play, surveys, communication games, debate or discussion and story building among other techniques to give students a chance to use the language fluently.
Feedback is very important to encourage improvement. Feedback depends on individual students, culture and expected teacher role, stage of lesson and type of activity. There are various methods of feedback oral or written but should be clear and if oral, audible so students can correct work.
Praise and critique should be balanced. A mistake can be fixed by the student himself and an error is more ingrained such as student believes he is correct, does not know the correct from or knows but cannot get it right. Correction may be self, other students or as a last resort, the teacher.
Certain corrections are appropriate to raise such as the mistake is with the language point taught, the mistake is regularly repeated or the mistake seriously impedes understanding.
Where corrections necessary, teacher may indicate to student in inquisitive tone such as ?again? or equivalent query or highlight on blackboard. Teachers should not interrupt students to correct and wait for the student to finish speaking or until the end of the activity to avoid cutting flow but during Engage and Activate stages corrections should be minimized.
When correcting writing, it is helpful to use common codes. Typical examples include:
?wo? word order
?t? wrong tense
?s/p? wrong usage of singular or plural
?^? something is missing
?? something is not necessary
?m? meaning is not clear
?na? usage is not appropriate
?p? punctuation is wrong
This information was largely new to me, very informative and useful.