Theories, Methods & Techniques of Teaching - Suggestopedia

 

Also in the 1970s la señal came up with a new methodology called "Suggestopedia". As psychological theory was developing, one of the ideas that came up was something called ?the effective filter?. Basically, the effective filter is a barrier to learning. It's the reasons why we inhibit our learning of a particular language. There are two main elements to the effective filter, two sets of factors, if you like, those are known as internal and external factors. The external factors to learning, the reasons why we have barriers to learning, may be just simple things such as external noise. So, people talking to us while we're trying to learn and so on and so forth. Perhaps more important are these internal factors and the internal factors one of the main things here is our previous experience. If we have tried to learn a language in the past and we have not been successful, that forms an internal barrier to further learning in the future. The idea of Suggestopedia is that we reduce this effective filter to its lowest possible value. Now, theory tells us that the effective filter has its lowest value when we're in the womb and so one of the ideas of Suggestopedia was to try to recreate the conditions of feeling safe in the womb and our effective filter will now be at its lowest possible value. We will be the most receptive to learning at that point. So, how do we actually go about teaching in this situation? Well, what we try to do is first of all reduce the effective filter through the internal and external factors down to its lowest value. So our students are made to feel comfortable, first of all, and then we have the use of music. The use of music in Suggestopedia is in different forms depending on which part of the lesson that we're in. The idea is, in the first section, which is sometimes called the first concert, we use lively music and this is known as the active part of the lesson. The idea here is that the lively music will start to get our brain waves moving around and put us into a receptive mood. Then, in the second concert, the teacher will introduce the target language, usually in the form of dictation. While that's taking place, we use Baroque music, which puts us into a passive state and allows us almost to become like a sponge and absorb this particular information. Once that's been completed, we can then use that knowledge in some form of production. Now, in terms of positive things for the students in reducing this effective filter down to its lowest value, it makes the actual lessons a very comfortable experience for our students. The second positive thing about it is, whilst it may sound strange itself in terms of a technique, it does come from a very clear psychological theory, in the terms of the effective filter and the fact that we are more receptive to learning when that affective filter is at its lowest value. In terms of the negatives, it's obviously very very different to anything that we're used to and some people say it's just too different. The fact that it is so different can increase our effective filter in effect because we think it's not going to work. Secondly, it's not easy to create these ideal conditions that are necessary to reduce your effective filter. There aren't too many schools that would have the facilities first of all to actually produce all of these conditions.


Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

Pronunciation is one of the most difficult and most neglected points in teaching and learning which can vary on how it is spoken making it hard to recognize the rise and fall of a word or sentence. Understanding the sound refers to phonology with emphasis on the stress, rhythm, intonation and the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). The teacher needs to incorporate these into the classroom and allocate a certain amount of time for each one so the students gain a general understanding Intonation refers to recognizing the pitch or rise and fall which relays the message in the sentence depending on how it is spoken as an example as being happy, sad or unsure, questioning, agreeing etc. Listening to and understanding the statements you will be able to detect one of the three patterns. The normal pattern is a rise/fall, the second pattern involves a fall/rise and the third pattern is flat. Each pattern has different indications and meaning of the sentence or word that is presented. Intonation is not an easy task to learn however understanding the principals of the patterns can be learned through practice and classroom activities such as exercises with non-sense words then real words, humming, singing or gestures. Stress is the strong part of the word in the sentence that has the primary emphasis and where the intonation falls. When speaking, we can only stress syllables and only one word however; longer words there can be a second stress but it is much softer. There are a few different rules as to putting stress on words with many different syllables but it is easier for the students to learn the stresses naturally. Plus, when speaking normally usually there are less stressed words. Once again this can be learned through classroom activities such as singing, putting stress on a word unnaturally then repeating it correctly, gestures or writing it on the board and underlining. The natural way of speaking the English language is by sound joining, sound changing, linking, or dropping letters. The IPA is a set of symbols which focuses on the sounds you make when saying a word and forget about the correct spelling. There are voiced and unvoiced consonants which is identified by whether there is a vibration of your vocal chords. Also, compare your mouth and lips when saying voiced and unvoiced consonants. When sounding out consonants different areas of articulation are a factor when it comes to human speech. Each area has unique qualities on how particular consonants are spoken. To understand each articulation these areas are velar, palatal, palatal-alveolar, alveolar, dental, labio-dental, bilabial, glottal. While using the mouth the manner or articulation consists of plosive, fricative, nasal, lateral, affricate and approximant. Teaching these pronunciations of sounds can be fun in the classroom. Lessons can include such as working in partners and dictating, for the teacher to say it slowly and emphasize on the sounds and then have the students repeat it back, visuals, symbols and tongue twisters. Overall there is a lot to learn and understand when it comes to pronunciation but once the student and teacher get it can be very useful in and out of the classroom. Keeping in mind that learning can be fun and encouraging to the students of wanting to learn.


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