The ESA Methodology of Teaching - Types of ESA Lessons

 

This particular methodology is known as a straight arrow ESA lesson. If every single lesson that we undertook with our students was a straight arrow ESA lesson then it is quite possible that the students would be able to predict what is going to come up next and whilst this is good for the lower level students, then it could potentially become a little bit boring for our higher level students. So what Harmer did in his ideas about ESA, was to generate two other types of ESA lesson that we can use to try and generate a little bit more interest. So, the other two types of ESA lesson that we can follow: The first is known as a boomerang lesson and the second is known as a patchwork lesson and what we're going to do is to have a look at those other types of ESA lesson in a little bit more detail. Okay, so what we'll do now is to go through each of the types of lesson to see how they are created. The straight arrow, as its name implies, is just running through each of the three phases E, S and A in a straight line. The second type of lesson is known as the boomerang and, as the name implies, what happens in a boomerang lesson, is that we send something out to start with and that comes back to us. A boomerang lesson would be something like this. We always start whatever type of lesson it is with an engage phase. That's to get them talking and thinking in English. From the engage, we then move directly into an activate activity before we have studied any of the language. What is likely to happen here is that the students are not going to create the perfect language, either in terms of their vocabulary or in terms of the grammar. So, this is going to indicate a gap in the students? knowledge. What we can then do, knowing what that gap in the knowledge is, is to study that particular gap and once we've completed that, we can then reactivate in the second activate phase to see whether they are able to use that knowledge. In the patchwork ESA lesson, really all we can say here is that we're going to start with an engage phase, we're going to end with an activate phase and really anything we like can happen in here, in terms of the A's and the S's and the E?s. So, in the patchwork lesson, what we're doing is putting together all of these different components E, S and A in no particular order. What we'd like to do now is to have a look at actual examples of each of these three types of lesson so that you get a clearer idea of what they might involve.


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This is a very obvious that a teacher will have to face various problems throughout the teaching session. The teacher should be well known about dealing with those problems. Facing new group of students will need a rapport establishment among all students as they all are new for each other and even unfamiliar with EFL methodology. Teacher should conduct activities that help to establish rapport, to find out about students, their needs and their English level on first lesson. Questionnaire, survey, ?Tell us about? game, pass the ball game and Needs analysis are useful activities to be carried out to achieve things that mentioned above. Running class straight away as soon as teacher and students get in the classroom may not be effective way to motivate students. Students should be warmed up by making a fun start as we also studied in ?Engage? phase before taking students to ?Study? phase with a full participation. Dealing with a group with different level of students can be a challenging task for the teacher. However, followings can be applied to resolve this problem: - Use different materials by splitting stronger and weaker students into two different groups. The teacher must assure that he is giving an equal attention to both groups or else, one of those can be demotivated. - Giving complicated task to stronger students but use same materials for both groups - Using same materials could be frustrated to weaker and boring to stronger students as they won?t find any room to progress or deal with activities that is relevant to their level. - Giving an opportunity to let stronger students work with weaker and help the weaker to learn. Large classes are another big challenge for teachers. However, following techniques can be used to create successful classes: - Use worksheets rather than go through whole class activities - Group work - Ensure the teacher?s voice is clear enough and so is the board work - Choral repetition - Appoint group leaders to help you out with managing the big class - Large class can be dynamic and useful for teachers as it carries large amount of different ideas and thoughts from students Teacher should make sure students use English language as much as possible. However, monolingual classes can be harder to stop all students using their native tongue. Followings can be carried out to encourage students to speak English: - Use an appropriate level of activities - Give a clear instruction so, the students don?t have to make one another understand in their native language. - Encourage students to use English as much as they can rather than strictly ban them to use their native language. It may lead a big silence. Minor errors in speaking should be avoided by teacher. - Try to respond students in English all the time so, they will be bound to use English with you - Keep reminding students to speak English Some students don?t want to participate due to cultural behavior or confidence issues. Using plenty of pair work, controlled practice, role play and a tape recorder can help teacher to deal with this matter. Teacher shouldn?t escape listening practice because of students are weak with listening skills rather than helping students to improve their listening skills. Tape?s quality and volume clarity must be checked before ensuring this problem. Similarly, teacher must prepare extra activities for stronger students to carry on even after they finish with first one quicker than weaker students.


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