The ESA Methodology of Teaching - Patchwork ESA Lesson
A final example is going to be an example of a patchwork ESA lesson and remember we said the form of this particular lesson will start with and engage always and will finish with and activate and there'll be some variation of E, S and A within the brackets here. So we're going to generate our patchwork ESA lesson as follows. Starting with the engage, the students are going to look at holiday photos and talk about what they like and don't like from what they see. From that, we're going to move directly into an activate phase and what the students are going to do is to make comments about holiday brochures and try to act out a role-play between the travel agent and a customer. Again, as this is taking place, the teacher will be moving around and looking for gaps in knowledge in terms of their vocabulary and their grammar and these things are then going to be covered in the first study activity. So in the board work phase of this study activity, the teacher will cover any gaps in knowledge indicated by that first activate activity. What the students are then going to do is to move into a second activate and here, they're going to use the information from the study activity and they're going to try to create their own travel brochures. Again, once the students have created that travel brochure, we're going to move into the next phase, which is going to be another engage, this time about a slightly different topic. So, this time the students are going to be asked what they like about particular radio or TV adverts. So we'll get the students to tell us which particular adverts they like and why, which ones they find amusing, which ones generate their interest and from this, we?ll move into another study phase where the teacher is going to cover the types of language that is generated by those types of advert. What we're going to do to finish the lesson off, is a final activate activity, where hopefully we're going to bring everything that we covered so far in the lesson together and the students are going to create their own TV advert and their then going to present that to the rest of the class.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Conditional forms, which we speak about in the Unit 16, should be introduced to students once they are familiar with the basic past, present and future tenses. Some teachers share opinion that teaching each conditional pattern separately within difference in time may have confusion as a result in students minds. When studying on conditional patterns in isolation students may have grater difficulties distinguishing current pattern and its functions from previously learned ones. Will we teach all conditional forms in one series of lessons or step by step during the term or with another pace it?s a personal teacher?s preference. Sometimes it?s just predetermined by the school program. But we can choose how to teach conditional sentences, relying on the experience of other teachers. And this experience tells us that the most confusing part about conditionals for students (although there are always enough mistakes with the formula itself) is their functions. We need to show clear and precise difference between each pattern?s functions.
1. Zero conditionals. We need to highlight that we use them for 100% right, factual and provable equation ?if = consequence?: ?If I heat water till 100C, it boils?, ?If I hit my sister, she cries?. Also, we use them to give a warning: ?If you see a wolf, run?.
2. First conditionals. We use this form to show our promises. We use this conditional to show a likely or possible outcome that will probably happen if a specific condition is met. First and zero conditionals with ?when? clause can be very similar in their functionality sometimes, but the main difference that we use future time clauses for routines, but use the zero conditional for exceptional situations.
3. Second conditionals. We need to stress that the second conditional form is used to imagine a different reality. In other words, the second conditional is an \"unreal\" conditional:?If I became president, I would end the war?. This conditionals also have different pragmatic functions, such as to give advice or warnings: ?If I were you, I wouldn?t do that?.
4. Third conditionals. Can be challenging for students because of the long verb string in the result clause. They are also unreal and used to express regret: ?If I had finished work earlier, I would have gone to the movie?.
The other topic we discuss in this unit is Reported speech. This grammar is used to talk about things other people have said. Teaching students reported or indirect speech can be complicated by the all the changes that are required when moving from direct speech into reported speech. First of all reported speech must be taught in context, so the students can understand both how and when to use it. Students need to be aware that reported speech is quite useful in conversational English. The second step is to present to the students the principle how to build reported speech ? by going one step back to the past. The third step is to show off how we change pronouns and time expressions while reporting what?s been said. And the last we need to show that sometimes, in the moment of speaking a speaker may use the present tense to report what has been said. In this case, there is no change in the tense. However, changes in pronouns apply. Reported speech is a great opportunity for students to do interviews with classmates. Being able to talk about things they have heard allows students to share more information. It is one thing to say what you think and totally different to talk about what other people have said.