Conditionals and Reported Speech - Backshifting Places
There are certain words that need backshifting when using reported speech. In this video we look at backshifting places in reported speech. This video is specifically aimed at teaching reported speech in an ESL setting.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
This unit was about the pronunciation and the phonology of the English language and how to teach it to students. Pronunciation is something that most students find very difficult in the English language, but it is also the area that most English teachers neglect the most. However, classroom time should definitely be dedicated to pronunciation, stress, and intonation so that students can learn these things because they are so difficult.
Intonation is the variation of volume and pitch throughout the whole sentence. Different intonations can mean different things and the two most common patterns are the rise/fall pattern and the fall/rise pattern, with rise/fall being the \"standard\" intonation pattern. There is also the flat pattern. All three of these are important to differentiate because the intonation carries the whole message of the sentence and is fundamental to expressing things like agreement and disagreement, questions, confirmations, or emotions.
Stress focuses more on single words rather than the entire sentence as intonation does. Stress rules are very complicated so students can be given a chart that can be discussed with the teacher, but the students also must be encouraged to feel the \"music\" of the language, and hear and speak as much as possible. Stress on a certain word also changes the meaning of the whole sentence because it puts the emphasis on different parts of the sentence so it is important for students to understand the concept of stress.
Pronunciation and spelling is very difficult in English, because certain sounds can be spelled many ways in English. Therefore it is useful to understand the International Phonetic Alphabet, the symbols used in dictionaries, as a teacher and to be able to teach it to your students. That way, they learn to focus on the sounds of the word. This is because IPA only has one symbol for one sound unlike the Roman alphabet, and the students can learn to break down words according to their actual sounds. This makes speaking and pronunciation much easier and more effective since they do not have to rely on a confusing spelling system.