There are certain instances where we tend to use the passive voice instead of the active voice. This is true when the agent is unknown or unimportant. We also use the passive voice to change focus or to conceal the agent. Find out more about this topic in this video.
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This unit covers the conditionals and reported speech.
Conditionals are referring to sentences that contain \"if\"/\"when\" and \"will\".
\"if\" a certain requirement has been met, somebody \"will\" fulfill a main clause.
There are five main variation of conditionals.
Zero conditional: Used to illustrate facts
Form: if/when + present tense, present tense
Example: The air depressurize when you open the window. If the cup flips, the water splatters.
First conditional: A real situation in the future that is possible or certain, once the requirement are met.
Form: if + simple present, will
Example: If the tree falls, it will hit the shed. If you hurt yourself bad enough, you'll send to the hospital.
Second conditional: Usually an unrealistic wish or hypothetical situation that is not happening currently and most unlikely to be true.
Form: if + past simple, would/could/might + base form
Examples: If i owned a spaceship, I would fly to other galaxies. If he lost his job, he might become crazy.
Third Conditional: Used to make up a past hypothesis that could affect a current hypothetical result.
Form: If + past perfect, would/could/might + have + past participle
Example: If you had joined the road trip, you would've been dead right now. If she had stayed in her hometown, she could've been married already.
Mixed Conditional: It is used by combining a second conditional clause with a third conditional clause. It refers to a hypothetical past condition that might influence present situation.
Form: If + past perfect, would + base form
Example: If your mum had caught you with the cigarette, you would not be here right now. If my computer had broken down, I would be taking a break now.
Reported speech and direct speech is used when retelling a situation from one person to another person. Depends on the question word (when, where, why, who, what, how etc.) the way report speech is constructed change accordingly to match the initial situation.
Felix tells Nick \"They ran out of milk in the convenience store.\