Pronunciation and phonology in the EFL Classroom - Manner of Articulation Pt. 3
And now we have our nasal sounds. There are three nasal sounds and basically the pattern of air that's moving out of our vocal tract has to do with two big instances and that is a closure in the vocal tract. Except aside from the plosives and affricates, what we have is air escaping through our nasal cavity. These sounds include ?m?, ?n? and ?ng?. We're moving from the front of the mouth to the back of the mouth. First with the M sound or the ?m?, we're closing both lips and the air is escaping through the nasal passage ?m?. Next we have our N sound or our ?n? sound. There, the closure is inside the mouth but our tongue is closing up near our alveolar ridge and the air is escaping through the nose. Again that's ?n?. Finally we have our NG sound and the closure there is happening further back in the vocal tract and now we're producing a sound such as ?ng?. It's not a wonderful sound but nonetheless we do need to use it especially with our present participles and our gerunds. Continuing on with the manner of articulation we have our lateral sound. There's only one of them. I like to think of it as our lonely lateral sound. The lateral sound is the L sound or ?l?. It's called lateral because the tip of the tongue is placed on the alveolar ridge and air escapes through the mouth laterally along both sides of the tongue. Again that's lateral sounds and ?l?. If you try that at home you can get again an appreciation of where the air is going. It's moving laterally along the vocal tract and that's ?l?. Finishing off our manner of articulation, we have our approximants. There are three approximants and I'll get to those shortly. The reason they're called approximants is because basically our vocal organs are approximately in the middle of our mouth. The big factor here is that there isn't any audible friction. Air is moving freely but the vocal organs are not close enough together to create audible friction. These sounds include ?w?. The place of articulation is in the front however the matter of articulation we have our tongue approximately in the middle of our mouth not causing any vibration with any other vocal organs and in order to produce the sound ?w?. Next we have our R sound or our ?r? sound. Again, there isn't any audible friction within our vocal tract here and it's a very difficult sound to produce. It's very close to the lateral sound but the key differentiation here is that our tongue is not touching our alveolar ridge. It's approximately in the middle of our mouth. One more time that's ?r?. Finally, we have our ?y? sound and ?y? again is just approximately in the middle there it's not causing any audible friction it's ?y?.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Authentic materials are what you can find in everyday life such as menus, brochures, newspapers, et.
Created materials are usually designed by the teacher and include: Role-playing cards, gap-fill exercises, crosswords, et.
Some advantages to authentic materials are, they can get the class more interested in the subject since they can relate to the material, the students can gain confidence from learning for them, and they can be geared toward the interest of the student.
There are also some disadvantages to using authentic materials, such as: It is not geared toward any certain level and therefore could be too difficult for the student.
Also, the material could include informal English and could throw off the students if they have not mastered the material by the end of the lesso.
Some advantages to created materials are the material can be graded to the students level, it can be student focused, and can be used to replace or supplement material from the boo.
Created material also has some disadvantages, such as: It can be too time consuming to come up with the material for every lesson, the students may find it boring, and it can limit the students exposure to everyday use of Englis.
It would be good to have a mix to the two materials, depending on the level of the student.
There are also many advantages and disadvantages to using coursebooks in clas.
Some advantages are: It is less time-consuming for the teacher, it has already been tried and tested, and it can be helpful to novice teachers like m.
There are also some pitfalls to using coursebooks which include: It can sometimes be boring and predictable to the students, some lessons will not go in-depth enough for your particular lesson of that day, and it can make the teacher lazy if they rely on it too muc.
There are ways to get around these disadvantages and optimize the coursebook without relying on it too muc.
Some examples include: Use the coursebook as more of a guide, replace unsuitable material in the book with something more specific for the class, omit some sections of the book that does not fit the class material, and don't base all lessons on the book and try to come up with lesson plans of your ow.