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TESOL Videos - Pronunciation and Phonology in the EFL Classroom - Manner of Articulation Pt. 1
When it comes to manner of articulation, we have six different ways in which our breath is produced in order to make our sounds. We have our plosives, our affricates, fricatives, the nasal sounds, our lateral sound and the approximants. Let's take a look at each individually and see how they differ from one another. First we have our plosive sounds. As the word might indicate we have basically a little explosion of sound with our breath. The plosive sounds are made through a three-step process. First there's a closure somewhere in the vocal tract. Second there's a buildup of air and finally there's a sudden release of that air like a little explosion. If we look at some of the sounds that are made this way we might better understand why they are called plosives. Examples are the ?p?, ?t?, ?k? and ?g? sounds. Again we have a closure in the vocal tract, a buildup of air and a sudden release ?p?, ?b?, ?k? and ?g?. Next we have our affricates. This manner of articulation is very very close to the plosives however there's one very important difference and that's in the last step. Again with the advocates we have a closure somewhere in the vocal tract, we have a buildup of air, however, with this manner of articulation we have a gradual release of air rather than the sudden release of air with the plosives. There are two examples of these sounds and they are ?tsh? and ?dsh?. Again there's a closure a buildup of air but yet this time it's a sudden release. Let's take a look at that one more time we have ?tsh? and ?dsh?.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Managing the classroom is a skill that can be developed. There are certain factors that can help the teacher manage the classromm. The teacher can use his eyes, voice, and gestures to help manage the class. The eyes can be used to get and hold a student's attention. The teacher can vary the voice he uses depending on the activity the class is doing. There may be one voice for providing instructions and another to eleict converstaion with students. The teacher can uses gestures to help explain the meaning of a word or sentence. The teacher can use different student groupings to help manage the class. There are advantages and disadvantages with each type of grouping. The type of grouping may depend on the activity of the class. One grouping, such as a horseshoe or circular, can be used to instill a less formal atmosphere, or can be used to make pair work easier. A whole class grouping may not be conducive for allowing student talk time. The class room arrangement can also be a help in managing the class. There might be constraints to arranging the class room, such as the size of the class and the types of desks, tables, or chairs. There are other actions the teacher can us to manage the classroom. Writing on the board is an example. It seem advantageous to keep writing on the board to a minimum. Having information already on the board reduces the teacher's board writing time.