Productive and Receptive Skills in the ESL Classroom - Accuracy vs. Fluency
Before we move on to the planning of a lesson for speaking skills, something that we need to look at first is the idea of the accuracy versus the fluency of speaking. Accuracy relates to the correct usage of grammar and vocabulary, whereas fluency relates to our ability to continue speaking without any interruption. Now, ultimately within a whole ESA lesson or within language learning itself fluency and accuracy are equally important. Within an ESA lesson, however, depending upon which stage we're at in that lesson, then we're either focusing on accuracy or we're focusing on fluency. Remember in the ESA lesson, in the study phase, this is where we're looking at the target language where we're doing our language learning, so it's very important in this stage that we focus on the accuracy of the language, whereas in the activate stage we're trying to get the students to use the language in the realistic way and what we want them to do there is to focus on fluency.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Modal Auxiliary Verbs include can, could, may, might, shall, will, would, must, have to, have got to, need to, needn?t, and ought t.
They express oligation, possibility/probability, permission/ prohibition, ability and advic.
They can also be used to express differing degrees of formalit.
Modals don?t change according to perso.
Modals are followed by a verb in its base form and a table for modals with their usage and forms is provided, and examples are given of how they can affect the formality and meaning of the ver.
Teaching ideas include: Role play, rules , and signs Passive Voice There are two voices in English, active and passiv.
In passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive ver.
Only transitive verbs, which are followed by an object, are used in the passiv.
In passive I painted the door yesterda.
becomes The door was painted yesterda.
The form for passive voice is: Auxiliary verb + past particle for all tenses but the perfect continuous tense isn?t use.
Passive Voice is used when it isn?t known or is unimportant who performs the actio.
Typical mistakes include leaving out the verb to be, using tobe in the wrong tense, and overuse of by Relative clauses take different forms: Independent clause, which is a complete sentence with subject and verb; Dependent clause that needs to be connected to an independent clause; Relative clause (or adjective clause) is a dependent clause that modifies a nou.
Relative clauses are usually introduced by who, which, that, whose, whom, et.
The information given in a defining relative clause is essential to the meaning of a sentenc.
The information in a non-defining relative clause is not essential to the meanin.
Commas are critical in non-defining clause.
Phrasal Verbs, or mulit-word verbs consist of a verb plus one or two particle.
A particle may be a preposition or an adverb, or an adverb plus a prepositio.
Type 1- Intransitive Intransitive verbs cannot be followed by a direct objec.
He didn?t turn up Type 2-Transitive separable With phrasal verbs an object pronoun can only come between the verb and the particle An object noun can come either between the verb and the particle or after the particle Type 3-Transitive inseparable The object phrase or object pronoun both come after the particl.
It includes phrasal verbs that have two particles: an adverb followed by a prepositio.
The addition of the particle frequently changes the meaning of the verb These topics can become too complex for beginning learners and probably should only be taught at the intermediate level or above, or explained as necessary when they are encountered in the course of using authentic material