Overview of All English Tenses - Present Tenses Overview - Present Perfect Continuous


We can see that this particular usage of the unfinished past can be used for both the present perfect and the present perfect continuous. Where we've got action verbs, we usually prefer to use the present perfect continuous. However, there are state verbs which don't usually go into the continuous form, such as 'know'. We would say 'I have known her for 10 years,' not 'I have been knowing her for 10 years.' So when we have these state verbs, such as 'know', 'be', 'seem' and 'appear', we would usually put these in the present perfect but with the action verbs, such as 'play', 'cook', 'work', we will use these in the present perfect continuous. Normally, we also use the present perfect continuous fairly frequently with words, such as just or recently to express a recently completed action with the present results, for example 'I am tired because I have been playing football.'

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here are many different kinds of English as a Second Language (ESL) course books that are designed for students of all levels and ages. Therefore, the process of choosing the right course book for use in the classroom, especially at the college level, is a daunting task. In addition, what we choose for our classrooms often shapes the syllabi, and sometimes even the entire language program (Angell, DuBravac and Gonglewski, 2008; Byrnes, 1988). There are many reasons why English teachers choose to use ESL course books in the classroom. Sometimes it is based on our impressions and expectations of what teaching materials should look like. Other reasons might be that the course books are visually appealing, easy for the teacher to prepare, and the activities fits well into the timetable (Angell et al., 2008). However, all course books should be chosen based on its educational values and whether or not it meets the program objectives. Most importantly, students should learn something beyond just simple practices of ABC?s. According to Cheung and Wong (2002), the major premise of an academic curriculum should aim at developing students? intellectual abilities in subject areas that are most worthy of study. This means that the curriculum should provide intrinsically rewarding experiences for the students while developing their affective and cognitive domain. Schwartz (2006) mentioned that a good curriculum is not only designed for the students, it is also designed for the teachers as well. In other words, a good curriculum not only educates the student, but teachers can also teach something of value to the students. Therefore, what could teachers do to improve their courses when they are restricted by the ESL course book assigned to them by the administration? Advantages of Course books From the school administration and some teacher?s point of view, there are several advantages for basing the curriculum on a series of ESL course books. First, the course books have a clearly identified set of achievement objectives which include what the learners are expected to be able to do and what to expect next. These ready-made syllabi contain carefully planned and balanced selection of language content that can be easily followed by teachers and students (Kayapinar, 2009). Second, when the teachers are teaching each unit in the course books, there is a consistency in the topics and genres in the four skills area (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). This allows for greater autonomy in the learning process. In addition, many inexperienced teachers may find ESL course books to be useful and practical because the ready-made activities and lessons are easy for the teacher to prepare. In many of the ESL course books, the designers even have prepared achievement tests for each units of study and a teacher?s manual to guide the teacher in their instruction. Finally, ESL course books are the cheapest and most convenient ways of providing learning materials to each student (Kayapinar, 2009). All of these reasons make using course books a very popular choice in the English learning curriculum.

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