Lesson Planning - Part 1 - Why do we plan lessons?
Hello. This presentation is going to cover this section on lesson planning and what we're going to do is to have a look as to why we go about planning a lesson, what do we actually put in it? We'll create an empty lesson plan pro-forma and then having done that what we'll do is to fill in that lesson plan for a particular teaching point. So, our starting position is going to be: "Why do we plan lessons at all?" There are a number of reasons why we need to plan a lesson. The first and foremost perhaps is that it's going to create a logical sequence for our lessons. If we didn't have a lesson plan, it is quite possible that we could go all over the place and it would become confusing for the students. By having this plan, what we've created is a structure that we can work from. So, in effect, the lesson plan itself is a working document and we can refer to it at various times in a lesson. If ever we're not quite sure what we're supposed to be doing next, we can just take a quick look at our plan and it tells us where we should be going. Another important reason for planning your lessons out is that it creates a record, a document of what has actually been taught and this can be very useful if wherever questions as to whether we've covered the syllabus in all its details, then we've got this lesson plan that shows that that has been done. The final reason, main reason, why we plan a lesson is that it can be used for someone to cover your lesson. For example, if you created your lesson plans for your next week and for some reason you can't get into work then somebody else could use your lesson plan to make sure that the students don't lose their sequence of lessons. So, these are some of the reasons why we plan a lesson. What do we actually put onto that plan? Basically, there are two areas that we need to cover on our lesson plan in order for somebody else to be able to take that plan and adequately cover our lesson. Firstly, we need to put some general information about the class that is being taught. So, how many people are going to be there and so on and so forth and secondly, what should happen during the actual lesson. So, what does our lesson plan actually look like? So let's have a go at creating a lesson planning document.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
There are four different past tenses, each of them used in different occasions and with a specific form.
a) Past simple tense is used:
1. Past action with a given time ? I ended that relationship last September.
2. When the time is asked about ? When did you come at work?
3. For an action that took place at a definite time even if the specific time is not mentioned ? They came to China a long time ago.
4. Past habits ? He played video games a lot.
5. Series of completed actions ? I woke up at 6am, took a shower around 6:30, had my breakfast at 7, then left for work at around 7:30.
Form: To make the simple past tense, we use the past form only or the auxiliary ?did? + base form. We form the past tense of regular verbs by adding ?ed or ?d to the base form of the verb while irregular verbs have different rules to follow.
Positive: Subject + past form of the verb
Negative: Subject + aux. verb ?did? + not + base form of the verb
She did not walk. She didn?t walk.
She did not eat. She didn?t eat.
Question: Aux. verb ?did? + subject + base form of the verb
Did she walk?
Did she eat?
Students often make mistakes with the form of the verbs (regular or irregular) so I would use the memory cards and matching games for better remembering.
b) Past continuous
1. Interrupted past actions - I was washing the dishes, when the telephone rang.
2. Parallel actions ? I was reading a book while my brother was playing computer games.
3. Specific time as an interruption ? I was still watching TV at 2 P.M.
Form: To form a sentence in the past continuous, we use the past tense of the aux. verb ?be? (was/were) + the present participle (verb + ing).
Positive: Subject + was/were + verb + ing
She was walking
She was eating
Negative: Subject + was/were + not + verb + ing
She wasn?t walking
She wasn?t eating
Question: Was/were + subject + verb + ing
Was she walking?
Was she eating?
c) Past perfect
1. Completed action before another action in the past ? Sarah had cooked dinner before she went to work.
2. Third conditional sentences ? If I hadn?t bought the rain coat, I would have been soaked.
3. Reported Speech ? The teacher asked if we had written the homework.
c) Past perfect
Form: To form a sentence in the past perfect, we use the past form of the aux. verb ?to have? and the past participle.
Positive: Subject + had + past participle
She had walked
She had eaten
Negative: Subject + had + not + past participle
She hadn?t walked
She hadn?t eaten
Question: Had + subject + past participle
Had she walked?
Had she eaten?
d) Past perfect continuous
1. Duration of a past action ? They had been studying in London for 2 years before they moved to U.S.A.
Form: To make the past perfect continuous, we use the past form of the aux. verb ?to have? + been + the present participle (verb + ing)
Positive: Subject + had + been + verb + ing
She had been eating
Negative: Subject + had + not + been + verb + ing
She hadn?t been eating
Question: Had + subject + been + verb + ing
Had she been eating?