English Grammar Overview - Parts of Speech - Verb Tenses


It also helps us form our tenses. Many of the tenses will use these auxiliary verbs; particularly we have our continuous tense and our perfect tense. There are additional tenses that use auxiliary verbs. We'll get into that when we talk about our individual tenses. Another important aspect of our verbs is that they generally tell us what tense the sentence has been formed in. Take for instance the verb "to live." We could use it as live, lives, living or lived. "I live" or "she lives in Bangkok," meaning the present. "I am living in Bangkok," still the present or "I lived in Bangkok," meaning the past. Another difference with our verbs has to do with whether or not the verb is regular or irregular. With the regular verbs, in order to conjugate the verb into the past, we simply add "-ed". We need not do anything more. "I worked yesterday," "I played football last Saturday." It's always the "-ed" form. With the irregular verbs, in order to conjugate or change the verb into the past, we have to change the word completely or, certainly, we cannot simply add "-ed". So, "go" goes to "went": "I went to the store yesterday," and "speak" goes to "spoke". "I spoke at a conference last Saturday." When changing the form of our verbs, there are a few patterns that we have to keep in mind. First of all, we have our one-syllable verbs, which follow a pattern at the end: consonant vowel consonant. In this instance, we have to double our final consonant before adding "-ing" or "-ed". In two-syllable verbs, such as "occur" and "happen", we have to be focused on where the stress in the verb comes. Here, we've got "occur". The stress is on the end of the word. Here, we've got "happen", where the stress is at the beginning of the word. When making these changes for the stress at the end of the word, in patterns 'consonant vowel consonant', we double our final consonant before adding "-ing" and "-ed". However, here, where we have the same pattern, 'consonant vowel consonant', yet the stress is at the beginning of the word, there is no doubling of the final consonant. Now, we go back to our one-syllable verbs that end in 'y'. Here, we have a consonant before our 'y' as in 'cry'. In her,e we have a vowel before the 'y' as in 'play'. In this instance with 'consonant-y', we only add "-ing" to 'crying' but we have to drop the 'y' and add "-ied" for cried. However, when there's a vowel before the final 'y', we need not do anything. We only need to add '-ing' or '-ed'.

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

In unit 3 I studied the different methods to teach English. Next, I will explain some of them. Grammar translation method: the purpose is to translate from L2 to L1 and vice-versa. This is the oldest method. It dates back to the 17th century. The disadvantage is that SS are not exposed to natural language input. They just learn about the language. Audio-lingualisim: It is based upon a behaviorist theory of learning. It means listen and repeat (drilling). PPP: Presentation: the teacher presents the context for the language and explains how it is formed. Practice: SS practice making sentences in a controlled way. Production: SS are allowed to experiment with the language in a more creative way. Task-based learning: SS are given a task to complete. The focus is on the activity rather than the language itself. When they have done everything, the teacher can, if it is really necessary, help them to clarify any doubt. Communicative Language Teaching: This method focuses on language functions such as: greeting, inviting, suggesting. The activities are meant to use the language to solve real life situations. Community Language Learning: SS sit in a circle and they decide what to talk about. This method is mainly student-centred as it allows them to choose the topic and the language they want to practice. The teacher is present but she only interferes when necessary. The silent way: SS have to discover the language by themselves. The teacher only speaks when necessary. She makes use of coloured rods, each one representing an aspect of the language (grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary). Suggestopaedia: this method stresses the importance of setting a comfortable environment for the SS to learn (affective filter). The lesson consists of three parts: an oral review of the previous lesson, a presentation of the new topic and a reading section while listening to relaxing music. The lexical approach: this approach believes that words and phrases are more important than grammatical structures while learning a new language. Engage, study and Activate: (by Jeremy Harmer) through this method SS get motivated, are exposed to the language and have the chance to use it. It can be applied to all levels. It consists of three parts. Engage: the activities and the materials are meant to engage SS. The teacher does not teach at this stage. She/he just wants them to participate and speak as much as possible. Study: The teacher elicits information from the SS to form the basis of the new topic. Then, she presents the language and gives some activities to check if they have understood. Activate: SS are given the opportunity to use the language freely, focusing on fluency rather than accuracy. Finally, two more topics were addressed. These are: feedback and correction. Giving feedback: the purpose is to encourage self-awareness and improvement. It can take many forms: tests, discussions, giving praise, correcting. It is important to remember that even if the student made many mistakes, the teacher should always look for positive points. Correction: there are three ways to correct. The first one is self-correction. This should be the first option as one wants the student himself to spot the mistake. If he cannot do it, it would be useful to encourage Student-Student correction. The last resort should be Teacher-Student correction.

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