English Grammar Overview - Parts of Speech - Articles

 

And now we'll have a look at our articles. We can divide articles into these groupings: indefinite, using a or an, definite, using the, and oftentimes referred to as the zero article, is actually the absence of an article all together. With the indefinite article, we use it in a nonspecific way. "This is a pen," it's one of many pens. When using the definite article, we use it in a specific way. "This is the pen I'm using." We also use the indefinite article when mentioning something for the first time. "I have a boy and a girl." We use the definite article when mentioning that same thing an additional time or any additional times we mention it. So "I have a boy and a girl. The boy is eight and the girl is six." With the zero article, we don't use an article at all. We use it to talk about things in general or when we talk about all things together. So here, I would not use a or an, and I would simply say, "Pens are used for writing," or "Children go to school." When looking at articles, we have to remember that they always precede nouns. When looking at "a versus an", many people consider this to be a differentiation between spellings. The noun will either start with a vowel or a consonant. More accurately, this should be described with how the noun sounds. Does it start with a vowel or a consonant sound? Let's look at the two words "hour" and "university". While "hour" starts with an H, it actually sounds like it starts with a vowel sound. The resulting sentences are "I'll be there in an hour." Again, that's "an hour". "University" starts with a U, a vowel. However, it sounds like it starts with a "y", "university". However, when we write it or when we say it, we say it with an "a", the a article. An example sentence could be: "Cambridge is a university in England." And finally, let's take a look at our conjunctions. Conjunctions are linking or joining words, for example: and, but, and or. Take these two sentences. Independent clauses: I like fish. I don't like shrimp. We would use "but" in here. So, we could easily make one sentence: "I like fish but I don't like shrimp." If I wanted to say that I like fish, I like shrimp, I would simply say "and": "I like fish and I like shrimp." "Or" could be used in giving choices, such as in the question "Do you like fish or shrimp?"


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Lesson planning is essential for teachers since lesson plans provide an organized basis for teachers to refer to during the lesson. There are many forms of lesson plans but all of them depend on the individual. While some teachers write notes only, others prepare formal lesson plans. For an inexperienced teacher, it is recommended to prepare a formal lesson plan because lesson plans have different functions. Lesson plans are there to help a teacher in overall planning. It shows the objectives of the class and the activities needed to achieve those objectives. Next, it acts as a working document or a guide in the conduct of the lesson. The teacher can easily refer to the lesson plan and see which activity comes next but it doesn?t mean however that the teacher should stick to this particular plan. Lastly, a lesson plan serves as a record of what the class has done and which activities and materials have already been used in class. This is also very useful if another teacher has to cover another teacher?s class. Here is an example of my own lesson plan: Teacher: Observer: Date and time: Class level: Elementary Room: Expected number of students:12 Language point: Revision of toys and colours vocabulary from the previous lesson and introducing new grammar (have/ have not got) Teaching aids: realia, flash cards, board and pens, fill in the gaps worksheet Learner objectives: Students to be able to use the form of have got and haven?t when using toys? vocabulary Personal aims: Encourage students to actively take part in the lesson Anticipated problems for students: Forgetting to use got after have or haven?t Solutions: fill in the gaps Anticipated problems for teachers: Getting students to participate Solutions: fun activate phase Procedure Phase Timing Interaction -Revision of toys and colours vocabulary-use of realia objects Engage 4 min T-S -Ask students short questions: Which toy is green and purple? Engage 4 min T-S -I have got a doll. I haven?t got a car. -Showing the difference in meaning. Study 9 min T-S -Fill in the gaps activity by a given picture (in pairs) Example: I __________ a plane, but I(not) ________ a ball. Study 6 min S-S -Feedback from the previous activity Study 2 min. T-S -Divide students into groups of four and give them small flash cards with toys Activate 1 2 min T-S -Ask students to say which picture toys they have got the same, and which they haven?t got. 3 min. T-S -Ask students to make Venn diagrams 7 min S-S (Teacher can draw one on the board just as a reminder). In the previously divided groups they make the Venn diagrams and fill them in with the flash cards they?ve got. -Students present their diagrams by saying full sentences 8 min S-S e.g. Anna and Jay have got a yellow car, a yellow ball, a yellow puppet; we haven?t got yellow toys? It is very useful if the teacher tries to monitor his/her lessons. In this way the teacher would be able to improve the skills in a way that would make the classes more effective and enjoyable. The teacher can use a self evaluation form which should include the extent to which the objectives and aims were met, accuracy of problems and solutions, changes that were made during the lesson etc.

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