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Unit 4 is about vocabulary, grammar, and function. The unit explains to the new teachers how vocabulary can be taught to the leaners, putting emphasis now vocabulary is important to language learners especially at the early stages when students are motivated to acquire basic words needed to get by in the language.
When teaching vocabulary, I need to bear in mind the following factors; Similarity to students’ own language, similarity to English words already known, spelling and pronunciation and appropriacy. Also when selecting the vocabulary to the teacher, the teacher needs follow criteria such as; appropriacy to the task, appropriacy to the students, frequency and coverage and teachability of the word. The students also need to know the following about the vocabulary items; the meaning of the word, the use of the word, the word grammar, the interaction, spelling and the pronunciation of the word.
There are different techniques for teaching vocabulary include; Engage, to help engage students, there several activities that can be used and they include; realia, mime, and action, pictures, contrast, discussion, and discovery. Under the study, activities are; Gap filling, word searches, crosswords, matching exercise, example sentences, pronunciation exercises like drilling and study texts and dialogues. Last but not least, in the activate stage the following activities maybe use. Open class small class or pair discussion, role-plays, simulation, story building, material production task, and debates.
Another important section in grammar structures, It is imperative to note that any new language structure introduced largely determined by the level of the class and the course syllabus used, all in all, students need to know what the language means. It is therefore important to consider the following when teaching grammar; Meaning, use, forms, and pattern, spoken and written form. Techniques for presenting and practicing the language structures follow the same procedure of ESA
Finally, the language functions. Just the vocabulary and grammar, language similarly consists of language functions. It includes areas such as inviting, refusing, agreeing and disagreeing, suggesting among others. Because the language function puts more emphasis on activation of language, it is recommended that boomerang and patchwork type of ESA is followed in lesson planning.