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Unit 18 focuses on modal auxillary verbs, phrasal verbs, and passive voice. The section I found most challenging focused on phrasal verbs, and being able to identify and formulate the three different types. Modal auxillary verbs include can, could, may, might, should, will, would, must, etc. These are used before other verbs, in order to add meaning. These modal auxiliary verbs indicate obligation (must), possibility (might), permission (may), ability (can), and advice (should). Modal verbs can be practiced with students through role play and creating rules. Phrasal verbs are verbs accompanied by one or two particles. There are three types of phrasal verbs, Type 1 (intransitive), Type 2 (transitive separable), and Type 3 (transitive inseperable). Type 1 phrasal verbs cannot be followed by a direct object, i.e. “The plane took off” (meaning the plane left). Type 2 phrasal verbs have an object pronoun that can only be between the verb and particle, OR have an object noun that can come between the verb and the particle, or after the particle, i.e. “They bought the company out,” vs. “They bought out the company.” Finally, passive voice is used when it is not important who performed the action, i.e. “Last night a man was killed.” However, passive voice may be used with “by” to show importance to who performed the action, i.e. “The book was written by Cynthia Rylant.” This chapter allowed me to reflect on how complicated the English language can be, and that there are rules that native speakers may take for granted, but nonetheless, these topics are important to introduce and practice with English language learners.