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Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

SIMPLE PAST FORM [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs Examples: ? You called Debbi.
? Did you call Debbie? ? You did not call Debbi.
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the pas.
Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in min.
Examples: ? I saw a movie yesterda.
? I didn't see a play yesterda.
? Last year, I traveled to Japa.
? Last year, I didn't travel to Kore.
? Did you have dinner last night? USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the pas.
These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so o.
Examples: ? I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swi.
? He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00. ? Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? USE 3 Duration in Past The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the pas.
A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, et.
Examples: ? I lived in Brazil for two year.
? Shauna studied Japanese for five year.
? They sat at the beach all da.
? They did not stay at the party the entire tim.
USE 4 Habits in the Past The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the pas.
It can have the same meaning as \"used t.
\" To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, et.
Examples: ? I studied French when I was a chil.
? He played the violi.
? He didn't play the pian.
? Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? Past Continuous FORM [was/were + present participle] Examples: ? You were studying when she calle.
? Were you studying when she called? ? You were not studying when she calle.
USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupte.
The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Pas.
Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in tim.
Examples: ? I was watching TV when she calle.
? When the phone rang, she was writing a lette.
? While we were having the picnic, it started to rai.
USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Pas.
However, you can also use a specific time as an interruptio.
Examples: ? Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinne.
? At midnight, we were still driving through the deser.
? Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at wor.
IMPORTANT In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finishe.
In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the actio.
Examples: ? Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinne.
I started eating at 6 P.
? Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinne.
I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinne.
USE 3 Parallel Actions When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same tim.
The actions are paralle.
Examples: ? I was studying while he was making dinne.
? While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching televisio.
? Were you listening while he was talking? While v.
When Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentence.
Some clauses begin with the word \"when\" such as \"when she called\" or \"when it bit m.
\" Other clauses begin with \"while\" such as \"while she was sleeping\" and \"while he was surfin.
\" When you talk about things in the past, \"when\" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas \"while\" is usually followed by Past Continuou.
\"While\" expresses the idea of \"during that tim.
\" Study the examples belo.
They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentenc.
Examples: ? I was studying when she calle.
? While I was studying, she calle.
REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tense.
Also, certain non-continuous meanings forMixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tense.
Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Pas.
Examples: ? Jane was being at my house when you arrive.
Not Correct ? Jane was at my house when you arrive.
Correct ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, et.
Examples: ? You were just studying when she calle.
? Were you just studying when she called? ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples: ? The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the stor.
Active ? The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the stor.
Passive Past Perfect FORM [had + past participle] Examples: ? You had studied English before you moved to New Yor.
? Had you studied English before you moved to New York? ? You had not studied English before you moved to New Yor.
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the pas.
It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the pas.
Examples: ? I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kaua.
? I did not have any money because I had lost my walle.
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs) With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the pas.
Examples: ? We had had that car for ten years before it broke dow.
? By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight year.
Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfec.
Although this is possible, it is usually not necessar.
Example: ? She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in
1996. Past Perfect Continuous FORM [had been + present participle] Examples: ? You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrive.
? Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived? We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the pas.
\"For five minutes\" and \"for two weeks\" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuou.
Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the pas.
Examples: ? They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrive.
? She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of busines.
Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effec.
Examples: ? Jason was tired because he had been joggin.
? Sam gained weight because he had been overeatin.



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