In this video Linda explains the differences between "assure", "insure" and "ensure". They not only sound similar, but those three words also make an outcome sure but they are in no way interchangeable. "Assure" is used to speak out a promise or say something with confidence, for example "I assure you that he is a great lawyer". "Ensure" is used to make something certain, such as here: "Please ensure that you will be home at five o'clock today"."Insure" means to protect an object against risk by buying an insurance policy from an insurance company, like here: "I insure my television because it was expensive". Once you have realized the three different meanings and usages, there is no way you'll confuse them again.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
This unit outlined the way that different \"parts of a language\\" I had not worked all that summer.\" And a question would beThank you for the Unit! Very interesringinteresring and useful.The role of Teachers/Learners and attributes of a good teacher.and some cannot. Some can take direct objects and some cannot.this question should be replaced with concept check questions.evaluation and tests
different kinds of tests and assessments.Equipment And Teaching Aids
Teaching aids are important because they create a visual and interactive experience for the students. As the students become more engaged, they are more likely to understand the topic being taught
Teaching aids assist students in learning. These aids consist of video, audio and hands-on tools to help involve the students and enhance the learning experience.
Teachers begin using visual, audio and hands-on aids as early as elementary school. Teaching aids can be as basic as a blackboard or whiteboard. Audio and visual equipment, such as DVD players and video projectors, are commonly used as tools for learning with a very effective output.
Students tend to get more involved when learning if teaching aids are implemented into the curriculum. Hands-on aids, such as computers, maps and other tools that require some sort of interaction from the students, have the highest levels of effectiveness.
The tools are designed to involve the students, promote interaction, and promote faster learning and better comprehension. Being able to see, hear or get involved in a topic creates a much better method for learning.
How a teacher chooses to use learning aids in a classroom can vary dramatically. The main factor in the effective use of teaching aids is that a skilled teacher is behind the tools being used.
Multiple Ways to Engage Students in Diverse Classrooms
Auditory Visual Tactile-Kinesthetic Affective Technology Options
Listening to text read aloud Using a dictionary Using a dictionary Working in areas of student interest Using a talking dictionary
Listening to and retelling directions Highlighting key points Touching words on a word wall Working with a partner who can help with definitions Downloading and listening to a podcast on an iPod
Asking and answering questions Outlining steps to solving a problem Using manipulatives Working alone or in cooperative groups Using a word processing program
Engaging in a debate Completing a graphic organizer Building a model Participating in a discussion group or book club Using a talking calculator
Engaging in a discussion Designing a poster Using response cards Participating in a seminar Creating spreadsheets
Giving verbal prompts Illustrating or taking pictures Using a game format Giving feedback Creating a video
Talking through steps Drawing Finger spelling Giving praise Using blogging or text messaging
Using Print Resources
Reading instruction in the early elementary grades is focused on learning to read. As children graduate into upper elementary and middle school, the focus shifts to reading to learn.
Discuss the importance of organizing classrooms to foster partnerships and collaboration among diverse students as they talk, listen, read, think, and write. These collaborations include providing students with experiences that allow them to read to learn. In the next section, we will discuss several important areas to be considered with respect to print resources?visual enhancement, cultural plurality, dictionaries, and other aids.
Using Visual Enhancement
Visually enhanced reading materials can contribute to students' learning experiences. Illustrations with vivid colors and details allow students' imaginations to travel to other times and places. Exploring the visual details of an environment helps students with reading or language challenges have a better understanding of the context of the reading material. Illustrations also can provide cultural information, open up meaningful literature experiences, and promote dynamic exchanges among diverse students as each person shares his or her interpretation of the story. Visually enhanced reading materials assist struggling readers by
? Providing indicators in the story line to help them anticipate and predict the content of the text.
? Improving their comprehension with visual information that can be more accurately interpreted than language-based information.
? Supporting their ability to recall and retell the story. Many students remember illustrated information for greater lengths of time than text-based information.
Graphic novels are another print resource to use with struggling readers. These novels are similar to comic books, but they have longer and more complex stories. Graphic novels provide the same benefits as illustrated books and are available in electronic formats.
Using Cultural Plurality
Ensuring that print materials reflect a spirit of cultural plurality is important to supporting learning in diverse classrooms.
? Check the illustrations. Look to see if the illustrations depict a broad range of human diversity, such as race, ethnicity, and gender. Look for stereotypical depictions. Which characters are doing what in the illustrations?
? Check the story line. Are persons of color or individuals with disabilities required to have superhuman qualities to gain acceptance or approval? Are these characters framed as \"the problem\"? Are these characters able to solve their own problems or must a white, male, or non-disabled individual come to the rescue? Is the status of the female characters based on their own initiative and intelligence? Or are they dependent upon their good looks or to their relationship to male characters in the story?
? Consider the author's perspective. No author can be totally objective. Has the author created a balanced story? Does the author's perspective seem overly patriarchal or feminist? Is the story solely from a Eurocentric perspective? Are diverse cultural perspectives included?
When we are aware of these elements, we can provide reading materials to our students that reflect the ideals of culturally responsive instruction.
Using Dictionaries and Other Aids
Electronic dictionaries are a great multimedia support for children with writing challenges. They come in multiple formats, and students can experiment with different versions until they find one that fits their needs. Electronic dictionaries are easier for most students to use than the traditional print version. For diverse students, electronic dictionaries provide helpful features such as auditory assistance for pronunciation or verifying words that students are seeking.
Electronic dictionaries come in formats that are appropriate for young children and mature learners. Many talking dictionaries for young children are illustrated and give them additional learning support. The following list includes online dictionaries that you can explore:
? Enchanted Learning Picture Dictionary:http://www.enchantedlearning.com/Dictionary.html
? Franklin Spelling Ace:http://www.franklin.com/handhelds/dictionaries/spell_correctors/
? Internet Picture Dictionary:www.pdictionary.com
? Merriam Webster Online:http://www.m-w.com
Content-Rich Experiences into the Classroom
Virtual field trips and tours are great opportunities for students to have content-rich experiences. Teachers can choose a variety of global and national entities to explore. Some sites offer video streaming observation experiences. Students can follow the daily adventures of scientists and explorers into the far reaches of the earth, watch videos taken from various sites, and e-mail their questions. Some museums offer virtual \"walking\" tours where students can choose what they want to see and walk through as though they are using a video camera.
Skype and iChat are software applications that allow you to explore virtual opportunities such as bringing guest speakers to classes. These programs open up endless opportunities for students to communicate with experts or children from many countries and cultures. You can link to these services from anywhere in the world. For example, by using virtual docent programs, you can pre-arrange a meeting and connect to wonderful tours, lectures, and question-and-answer sessions. These content-rich experiences give students engaging and valuable opportunities for learning.
The class can be divided into five collaborative learning teams for this project. Each collaborative group is a mix of students that is representative of the class. Each student is assigned a lead role within his or her group. Each group will make a 10-minute presentation about life in a jungle habitat that includes related study and support materials to be shared with the class. Each group has a film director, a recorder, a wiki director, a spokesperson, and a trip coordinator. Based on each member's strengths and challenges, the following roles are developed, negotiated, and agreed upon:
? The film director is responsible for capturing images for the group presentation. Videos can be downloaded from YouTube, TeacherTube, Google and still images can be downloaded from a museum's or zoo's Web site. The director will load these videos and images to the wiki for review. After all group members give feedback on their preferences, the film director edits the media resources on the wiki. This role would be a good choice for a child with disabilities because these students typically thrive in a technological environment.
? The recorder is in charge of recording the dialogue that will be used to narrate the presentation and compiling all contributed material. The recorder will create a wiki page that lists all the contributions that are expected from all group members. This role is a great role for a student with strong writing skills.
? The wiki director will develop the group's Web presence. This responsibility includes creating an engaging appearance and working closely with the recorder to include accurate information. The recorder will provide most of the written work to support the wiki director. This would be another good role for a child with a disability.
? The spokesperson will be the primary presenter for the group. This role includes making arrangements with one of the group's interaction with the museum personnel, gathering questions from each group member, recording and archiving audio files of the conferences and the group's presentation, and posting files to the wiki in collaboration with the wiki director.
? The trip coordinator works closely with the teacher to ensure that the group is tuned in when they need to be. This person is responsible for posting directions on the wiki for all needed resources. The trip coordinator will also coordinate with the ESL teacher to make sure that all information is presented in other languages as necessary. This role will require organizational skills and can be filled by an ESL student.
With technology, there is a place and role for everyone!
Creating Motion-Centered Experiences in the Classroom
Meaningful manipulatives are multisensory tools that are very beneficial for students with diverse learning styles. Earlier in this chapter, we talked about globes and number lines as examples of manipulatives. Working with manipulatives can be more like an integrative brain function when used in motion-centered experiences. Over time, students are able to learn the content.
Using Auditory Materials in the Classroom
Auditory materials come in an increasing number of formats and can be classified in multiple ways. MP3 players are very popular, pocket-sized devices that play music and other types of audio recordings. Students can use them to play podcasts such as archived recordings from their classes or information transferred from other sites. MP3 players provide flexible access and give students the ability to repeat recordings for clarification and additional information. Many electronic books are available as free downloads in MP3 formats for pleasure or extended learning opportunities.
Amazon offers the Kindle 2, which delivers text-to-speech playback for an extensive list of
Infusing Popular Culture into Instruction
Today's students have increased exposure to multimedia and pop culture technology resources. Some teachers may question whether there is any value in using these specific resources and other computer- and Internet-based activities:
? 49 percent of students may be interested in pursuing careers in technology.
? 28 percent of high school students access foreign news services via the Internet.
? 94 percent of teens use the Internet for school-related research.
? Students spend more time on the Internet than they do watching television.
? The largest group of new users of the Internet from 2000?02 were 2- to 5-year-olds.
? Today's students feel technology is an essential and preferred asset in every part of their lives.
? Today's students are ultra communicators.
? Computers can help students increase their performance on standardized tests.
? Technology can increase students' motivation and improve their self-concept.
? Technology promotes inclusion for students with disabilities. (p. 11)
For teachers, it is essential to blend these facts into the teaching and learning process.
Using Web Tools
What is Web? This term generally refers to a group of new Internet applications that promote the use of, contribution to, and creation of information. Blogs, wikis, podcasting, and social networking are some of the most widely used applications .
? Blogs?Students can use blogs for discussions with friends or other groups of individuals. They can be integrated as digital bulletin boards where students can share, self-evaluate, and participate in group evaluations and feedback sessions. Students can also include art and photography on their blogs. Blogs also hold great promise for use in journaling in student activities.
? Wikis?Wikis are Internet-based collections of information that can be as expansive as Wikipedia or as simple as compiling information into a camping trip organizer. Teachers can use wikis for adding information to research topics, posting outstanding student work, or reporting news to parents on a bulletin board. You can visit Wikispaces at www.wikispaces.com to build a wiki to support your classes.
? Podcasting?Podcasts are easy and affordable audio recordings of activities or presentations that students can listen to on their personal MP3 players. Students can use podcasts to access new information, record their own presentations, and review content that is presented or archived in this format.
? Social Networking?Social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook provide great opportunities for students to link and communicate with students from all over the world. For diverse students, these sites can promote and improve their writing abilities. As always, teachers need to monitor students' participation for Internet safety issues.
Instructional materials are critical for successful teaching in any classroom, especially in diverse and inclusive classrooms where students' skill levels, learning styles, and interests are more varied. There are many exciting options that can help teachers meet the instructional challenges they face.