The ESA Methodology of Teaching - Sample ESA Lesson


Now an example of a straight arrow ESA lesson for our engage phase. What we're going to do is to show the students a video of animals and they are going to say what they like about those animals and try to create a list of some more. So, remember what we're trying to do here is to get the students talking and thinking in English. We're using a typical engage activity, which is to create a list and we try to make sure that all the students have been involved in some way in creating those lists. Moving on to the study phase, the first part is going to be the board work and the teacher is going to try to elicit from the students what each of those animals can and can't do. Typically, what the students will say is just single words, so "run," "jump," "fly," etc. What we would then need to do is to make sure that each of those things is put into a sentence. So what we will do is to run through each of the animals and get the students to tell us in full sentences what it can and can't do. This will be covering the actual grammar point that we're trying to cover and so what we then need to do is to make sure that the students understand this particular grammar point and we can cover that with the use of worksheets. So, for example, we may have a gap fill and we may have a matching activity on that particular point. On to the final phase of the lesson, which is the activate. What we're going to do here is to get the students in pairs to create their own super animal and once they've drawn that particular animal out, they're going to write a number of sentences to tell us what it can and can't do. After that, they're then going to present that information to the rest of the class.

Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.

In spite of its importance, the teaching of Pronunciation is often neglected because of its complexity and difficulty and the teacher?s lack of confidence. Phonology is the study of the physical properties of sounds. Individual sounds are difficult to perceive in isolation and need to be practiced in contexts. Intonation is the variation in volume and pitch within the whole sentence, vs stress which is concerned with individual words. Intonation carries the message and is fundamental in expressing emotions. Rise/fall intonation is normal in statements and in agreement. It also signifies the speaker is finished , can also be used in questions. The Fall/rise pattern indicates surprise and often disagreement, and it tends to indicate that the speakers expects a response and also signifies that the speaker isn?t finished. Flat intonation indicates doesn?t have much to say. Techniques for teaching intonation include: Nonsense words; By gestures indicating the rise and fall in a sentence; Humming or singing the sentence; by using the board and drawing lines and angles Stress can determine the meaning of the words. One word has only one stress. We can only stress syllables, not individual vowels or consonants. The rules for which syllable is stressed: Stress on 1st syllable for most 2 syllable nouns and adjectives Stress on last syllable for most 2 syllable verbs Stress on penultimate syllable for words ending in ?ic, -sion and ?tion Ante penultimate syllable for words ending in ?cy, -ty, --phy, -gy .?ive, -al Compound nouns stress on first part Compound adjectives stress on second part Compound verbs stress on the second part Only the vital syllables are stressed. Auxillary verbs, articles, pronouns and prepositions are not normally stressed Techniques for indicating and teaching stress Contrastive stress : demonstating the proper and incorrect By gesture: clicking fingers of tapping on desk Choral work: chanting or singing typical rhymes or dittyies wusing tit tum, or dah did ah The board: by underlining the stresses Using stress marks Sound joining: There are 4 major ways sounds join together in English: Linking; Sound dropping; Sound changing; and extra lettering. Linked speech is the way typical native speakers actually speak The phonemic alphabet is sed in dictionaries to show how a word is pronounced. There are 44 phonemic symbols in the categories of voiced and unvoiced consonants, vowel sounds and diphthongs. Way to much of the test for this chapter was composed of questions related to using these symbols. the Hard palate; and the soft palate(velum). The places of articulation are Velar, Palatal, Palatal-alveolar, Alveolar, Dental, Labio-dental, Bilabial, and Glottal Manners of articulation include Plosive when air is released in an explosive manner; Fricative due to the friction of air forced through a narrow space; Nasal sounds; Lateral caused byair escaping side of tongue; Affricate that combine plosive with fricative; and Approximant sounds produced by narrowing the vocal tract by tongue. A chart for articulation locations was included. Teaching techniques for the pronunciation of individual sounds include: Peer dictation; Using your own mouth to over emphasize individual parts of a word; Visuals diagramming the mouth with various sounds; and Phonemes using symbols for sounds; as well as Tongue twisters. Teaching pronunciation can happen either throughout the whole lesson, in lesson slots, or as and when required

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