Teaching Special Groups in ESL - Do's and Don'ts When Teaching Young Learners
There are some general Do's and Don'ts that need to be considered when teaching young learners. Watch this video to get more insight into teaching this special group of learners.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Conditional speech exists in five forms, the zero, first, second, third, and mixed conditionals. Conditional sentences use two clauses with the words \"If\" or, in the case of the zero conditional, \"when\". The zero conditional is used to report things that are always true, or scientific facts. It combines the present tense and a second clause that is also in present tense. The first conditional combines a present tense clause with a modal like \"could\" or \"might\" to express things that could happen in the future or are possible now. The second conditional uses a past tense clause and a modal like \"could\" or \"would\" to discuss unlikely situations such as winning the lottery. The third conditional combines the past perfect form of a verb with a modal, have and the past participle. This kind of sentence describes impossible hypotheticals or things that did not happen in the past. Mixed conditionals combine elements of any of the other conditionals and are more rare. \"If I had eaten lunch, I would not be hungry now,\" is an example. of a mixed conditional.
Reported speech is another difficult element of English because it appears counter-intuitive and often native speakers themselves do not even follow the rules for reporting speech. Reporting speech requires us to take direct speech and then backshift the tense, adopt an appropriate pronoun, and also to change other features such as time or place to make the speech accurate. For instance, if Jake said \"I went to the store yesterday to buy some milk for you (Iris)\" we would report this as \"Jake said he had gone to the store the day before to buy some milk for her.\" The time was sometime in the past and the action is completed, so we should change the tense. If it was actually yesterday that his happened, we could include yesterday, but otherwise we need to include a more vague phrase like \"the day before\". Finally, we should identify any people with their name or the appropriate pronoun, in this case \"her\". Students need to spend time learning the rules for how to change the conjugations.