Overview of All English Tenses - Present Tenses - Present Perfect - Spelling Patterns
As mentioned earlier, our example sentence has used a regular verb 'to play'. With the regular verbs we simply add '-ed'. This spelling pattern changes for words that end with a consonant and a Y: 'cry' goes to 'cried', 'try' to 'tried'. Another spelling pattern we have to be aware of is our consonant plus vowel plus consonant. In these instances, we double the consonant used: 'shop' needs the double P; 'ship' needs the double P. With these spelling patterns, and most spelling patterns in general for the English language, there are always exceptions to the rules. So we have to be aware of those exceptions. We also have to impart those exceptions on to our students. We can do so through various exercises and various activities to end our class. To form the negative sentence here, again, our subjects are in the beginning of the sentence. We keep our helping verb, whether it be have or has, and between our helping verb and the main verb in our sentence, we, of course, add the word 'not'. For forming the question of the present perfect tense again we're going to follow on with our form of inverting the subject and the helping verb. Now, we'll begin with 'have' or 'has', so we end up with questions such as 'Have I played football today?' or 'Has she played football today?'
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
Unit 20 touched on some common problems teachers may face in the classroom. It included advice about what to do in first lessons, how to effectively use warmers in at the beginning of class, how to deal with different levels of students in class, how to deal with large classes, advice on using the native language in English class, how to deal with reluctant students, and addressing difficulties with listening activities.
First lessons should be used to establish good relations between the students, and between the students and teacher. The textbooks should be avoided, and get-to-know-you speaking games, or interview games, should be used instead. This also allows the teacher to assess what level of English the students are at, and what they might need from the English course. Warmers should be used at the start of every class to get students engaged and motivated to speak English.
Classes with large differences in ability between students can make it difficult for the teacher to address every student's needs in English learning. There are four suggested methods. First, the teacher may split the class into a higher and lower level group, but the teacher must then equally divide attention between the groups, and the gap between levels may increase greatly. Second, the teacher may give all students the same material, but give stronger students more complex tasks to complete. Third, pairing stronger students with weaker ones can allow the stronger students to re-enforce what they have learned by explaining it to another person, and give weaker students a chance for one-on-one tutoring. There is a risk the stronger students will take over the task, so this method shouldn't be used all the time. Finally, teachers may do nothing. This means the gap between students won't increase, but higher level students may be bored, and lower level students confused, if the material is always targeted to the mid-range students.
Large classes may pose a problem of control for the teacher. Appointing group leaders from within the students can help with managing the classroom. Pair and group work will help keep all students involved. When organising these groups, clear instructions should be given beforehand.
Native language, don't use it. This means care should be given to make sure all activities are level appropriate, keep explanations clear, always encourage English use by students, and respond only to English.
Students who don't want to speak at all can stall the class completely. Plenty of pair work and controlled practice before open class activities give students a safe space to use English and gain confidence in it. The teacher may give students tape recorders to use outside of class, so they can record what they wish to say and give it to the teacher for corrections and advice. Also, role-playing can work for some students as pretending to be someone else and communicating in English may subconsciously remove the fear of making mistakes and having them attributed to you, personally.