Lesson Planning - Part 2 - What does a lesson plan contain?
So, the document itself needs to contain some general information about the class, for example the name of the teacher, the date and time of the lesson, what level of class is being taught and in what room, how many students are we expecting, this is important, when we've got things like photocopying and materials to do, what is the context of the lesson, in other words, what is the lesson actually about, what vocabulary or grammar point is this lesson covering and sometimes it's also useful to write out what the focus of the lesson is. So, in effect, the context of the lesson is telling us the grammar point, for example, that might be the present continuous tense, whereas the focus is telling us how we're going to go about teaching it. Another example to illustrate this: Let's imagine that we were teaching a starter class about color. Then, our focus could be the way in which we're going to teach them about color. So, we could be using clothes or we could be using fruit and vegetables. So here, the context would be color and the focus would be fruit, vegetables, clothes or whatever.
Below you can read feedback from an ITTT graduate regarding one section of their online TEFL certification course. Each of our online courses is broken down into concise units that focus on specific areas of English language teaching. This convenient, highly structured design means that you can quickly get to grips with each section before moving onto the next.
This unit covers Parts of Speech in English grammar. Parts of Speech teaches you about the different types of words and what they do in a sentence. By learning how words work, it will help you to use these words correctly when you communicate.
The most common parts of speech are: nouns, adjectives, articles, verbs, adverbs, gerunds, pronouns, prepositions and conjunctions.
? Noun ? These are names of people, animals, places, things, qualities and states. Nouns can be broken down into two categories called countable and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns can be counted while uncountable nouns cannot be counted. Some examples of countable nouns are eggs, cars, tables and chairs while uncountable nouns include water, sugar, music and even the state of feeling cold.
The main types of nouns are common, proper, compound, abstract and collective.
? Adjectives ? Adjectives are words that are used to describe nouns. The word handsome is an adjective which can be used to describe the physical feature of a male. There are many kinds of adjectives. Comparative adjectives are the adjectives we use to compare two people or things while superlative adjectives are used to compare more than two persons or things.
? Articles- Articles can be broken down into definite (the) and indefinite (a, an) articles. The indefinite articles a and an shows that the noun is indefinite. When a noun is indefinite, it is referring to any member of a group. The indefinite article a is usually used with a noun beginning with a consonant while an is used with a noun beginning with a vowel. The definite article the indicates that the noun is definite and refers to a specific member of a group.
? Verbs- Verbs are action words and they can also refer to states. All verbs can be either transitive or intransitive.
Transitive verbs have two characteristics. It is an action verb and it is also followed by an object.
Example sentence: Denzel kicked Tom under the table.
kicked = transitive
Tom = direct object
Transitive verbs usually involve doing something to someone or something.
Intransitive verbs cannot be followed directly by an object. It does not do anything to anyone or anything.
Statement: China lost.
This shows that there is no object in the sentence. The sentence only includes the subject China and the intransitive verb.
? Adverbs ? Adverbs describes the action of a verb in a sentence. Meaning is given to the action, quality or state denoted by a verb.
Example sentence: She is walking quickly.
The sentence is giving information on how the girl or woman is walking. Therefore the word quickly is considered to be an adverb.
? Gerunds ? Gerunds are the ing form of a verb used as a noun in a sentence. A gerund takes the place of a subject or an object in a sentence. For example:
Dancing to Reggae music is exciting. (Dancing is the subject of the sentence)
John and I enjoy dancing to every genre of music. (Dancing is used as an
object of the verb enjoy).
? Pronouns ? Pronouns are words that take the place of a noun in a sentence. The types of pronouns are personal (I, me, him, her etc.), possessive (hers, theirs etc.), relative (who, which, that etc.) and reflexive (myself, himself, herself etc.).
? Prepositions ? Prepositions are used to show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in a sentence.
? Conjunctions ? join words or groups in a sentence.
Parts of speech is very important as it helps students to learn how to punctuate sentences correctly.